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Differences Between Financial Accounting And Cost Accounting

The main differences between financial accounting and cost accounting are given as under.

1.Financial accounting provides information about the business in general way.Financial accounting tells about the profit and loss and financial position of the business.Cost accounting provides information to the management for proper planning,control and decision making.

2. Financial accounting classifies,records and analyses the transactions in subjective manner or according to the nature of expenses.Cost accounting records the expenditure in an objective manner or according to the purposes for which the cost are incurred.

3.Financial accounts are the accounts of the whole business.Cost accounting is only a part of financial accounts.

4. Financial accounts are relate to commercial transactions of the business.Cost accounts are related to transactions connected with the manufacture of goods and services.

5.Financial accounts disclose the net profit or loss of the business as a whole.Cost accounts disclose profit or loss of each product, job or service.

Dealing with Low Interest rates: Investing and Corporate Finance Lessons

A few months ago, I tagged along with my wife and daughter as they went on a tour of the Federal Reserve Building in downtown New York. While the highlight of the tour is that you get to see large stacks of US dollars in the basement of the building, I considered making myself persona non grata with my immediate family by asking the guide (a very nice Fed employee) about the location of the interest rate room. That, of course, is the room where Janet Yellen comes in every morning and sets interest rates. I am sure that you can visualize her pulling the levers that sets T.Bond rates, mortgage rates and corporate rates and the power that comes with that act. If that sounds over the top, that is the impression you are left with, not only from reading news stories about central banks, but also from opinion pieces from some economists and investment advisors. I know that investors, analysts and CFOs are all rendered off balance by low interest rates, but I will argue that the techniques that they use to compensate are more likely to get them in trouble than solve their problems.
The what: Interest rates are at historic lows across the globe
There is little to debate. Interest rates are lower than they have been in a generation and you can see it in this graph of the US 10-year treasury bond rate going back several decades:

US 10-year T.Bond rates at the end of each year
But it is not just the US dollar where low interest rates prevail, as illustrated by the German government 10-year Euro bond rate, the Japanese government 10-year Yen bond rate and the Swiss Government 10-year Swiss franc rate trend lines:

Ten-year Government Bond Rates: End of each period
In fact, on the Swiss Franc, the 10-year bond rates rates have not just dropped but have hit zero and kept going to -0.09%, leading to the almost unfathomable phenomenon of negative interest rates on long term borrowing. A world where savers have to pay banks to keep their savings and borrowers are paid money to borrow turns everything that we have learned in economics on its head and it is therefore no surprise that even seasoned investors and analysts are unsure of what to do next.
The why: Its not just central banks
Why are interest rates so low? I know that the conventional wisdom is that it is central bank policy that has driven them there, but is that true? To answer that question, I decided to do go back to basics.
The Fundamentals
While market interest rates are set by demand and supply, as they are in any other market, there are fundamentals that determine that rate. In particular, the interest rate on an investment with no default risk (a guaranteed or risk free investment) can be written as the sum of two components:
Interest rate on a guaranteed investment = Expected inflation + Expected real interest rate
This is the simplified version of the classic Fisher equation and it is true by construction. In fact, many analysts use it to decompose market interest rates; thus if the US treasury bond rate is at 2.00% and expected inflation is 1.25%, the real interest rate is backed out at 0.75%. In the long term, I would argue that a real interest rate has to be backed up by a real growth rate in the economy. After all, you cannot deliver a 2% real interest rate in an economy growing at only 1% a year in the long term, though you can get short term deviations between the two numbers. Thus, in the long term, the interest rate on a guaranteed investment can be rewritten as:
Interest rate on a guaranteed investment = Expected inflation + Expected real growth rate
How well does this simplistic equation hold up in practice? Testing it is hard, especially when you can observe only actual inflation and real growth but not expected inflation and real growth. However, we also know that expectations for inflation and real growth are driven, for better or worse, by recent history; thus expected inflation increases after periods of high inflation and decreases after periods of low inflation, thus making actual inflation and real growth reasonable proxies for expected values. The final number we need to test out this relationship is the interest rate on a guaranteed investment, and we use the US 10-year treasury bond rate as the stand in for that number, with the concession that the last 5 years have shaken investor faith in the guarantee.
Source: FRED (Federal Reserve in St. Louis)
Even if you take issue with my proxies for expected inflation (the actual inflation rate in the US each year, as measured by the CPI), real growth (the real growth rate in US GDP and the interest rate on a guaranteed investment, the graph sends a powerful message that risk free rates are driven by inflation and real growth expectations. If expected inflation is low and real growth is anemic, as has been the case since 2008, interest rates will be low as well and they would have been low, with or without central bank intervention.
The Central Bank Effect
Do central banks have influence over interest rates? Of course, but the mechanisms they use are surprisingly limited. In the United States, the only rate that the Fed sets is the Fed Funds rate, a rate at which banks can borrow or lend money overnight. Thus, if the Fed wants to raise (lower) interest rates, it has historically hiked (cut) the Fed Funds rate and hoped that bond markets (treasury and corporate) respond accordinly. One way to measure the effect of Fed action is to compute the difference between the actual US treasury bond rate each period and the “intrinsic” treasury bond rate (computed as the sum of inflation and real GDP growth that year):
Source: FRED
Note that the Fed Funds rate hit zero in 2009 and has stayed there for the last five years, effectively eliminating it as a tool for controlling rates. Perhaps driven by desperation and partly motivated by the savior complex, the Fed has turned to a relatively unused tool in its arsenal and bought large quantities of US treasury bond in the market for the last five years, the much-talked about Quantitative Easing (QE). While it is true that T.Bond rates have stayed below intrinsic interest rates over the last 5 years, the effect of QE (at least to my eyes) seems to modest.
As the economy comes back to life, all eyes have turned towards Janet Yellen and the Fed and Fed-watching has become the central focus for many investors. While that is understandable, it is worth remembering that in today’s economic environment, with low inflation and real growth, the removal of the Fed prop will not cause interest rates to pop to 5% or 6% . In fact, based upon the numbers in the most recent year, the intrinsic interest rate is 3.08% and if the central banking props disappear, that would be the number towards which US treasury bond rates move.

Given the evidence to the contrary, it is puzzling that investors continue to hold on to the belief that central banks set interest rates and can change them on whim, but I think that the delusion serves both sides (investors and central banks) well. Investors, whipsawed by market and economic forces that are uncontrollable, feel comfort in attributing the power to set interest rates to central banks. It also allows investors to attribute every phenomenon that they have trouble explaining to central banking machinations and interest rates that are either “too high” or “too low”. Quantitative Easing in all its forms has proved to be absolutely indispensable as a bogey man that you can blame for the failure of active investing, the rise and fall of gold, and bubbles of every type. Central banks, which are really more akin to the Wizard of Oz, in their powers, than Masters of the Universe, are glad to play along, since their power comes from the illusion that they have real power.

The Crisis Effect
There is another factor at play that may be more powerful than central banks, at least over short periods, and that is the perception of a crisis. Whatever the origins or form of the crisis, investors respond with fear, and flee to safety. That “flight to quality” often manifests itself in declining interest rates on bonds issued by governments that are perceived as “higher quality”, and may push those rates well below intrinsic levels. Looking at the chart where we outline the gap between the T.Bond rate and its intrinsic value, the quarter where we saw the US 10-year treasury bond rate drop the most, relative to its intrinsic value, was the last quarter of 2008, where the crisis in financial markets led to a rush into US treasuries. That translated into a precipitous drop in treasury rates across the board, with the 10-year rate dropping from 3.66% on September 12, 2008,  to 2.2% at the end of 2008, and the T. Bill rate declining from 1.62% to 0.02% over the same period.

Source: FRED- Constant Maturity Rates on 3-month and 10-year treasuries

One of the few constants over the last six years has been that we lurch from one crisis to another, with local problems quickly going global. While there are some who may argue that this is a passing phase, I believe that this is part and parcel of globalization, one of the negatives that need to get offset against its positives. As economies and markets become increasingly interconnected, I think that the recurring crisis mode will be a permanent feature of market. One consequence of that may be that market interest rates on government bonds will settle below their intrinsic values, a permanent “crisis discount”, with or without central banking intervention.

The Interest Rate Effect 
The level of interest rates matter for all of us, as investors, consumers and businesses. For investors, interest rates drive expected returns on investments of all types through a very simple process:
Expected Return (r) = Interest rate on a risk free investment + Risk Premium
That expected return then determines what we will be willing to pay for a risky asset, with lower expected returns translating into higher prices. For businesses, these expected return becomes hurdle rates (costs of equity and capital) that they use to decide not only whether and where they should invest their money but plays a role in how much they borrow and how much to return to stockholders (as dividends or buybacks).
If the risk free rate drops and you leave the risk premiums and cash flows unchanged, the effect on value is unambiguously positive, with value rising as risk free rates drop. Thus, if you have a business that has $100 million in expected cash flows next year, with a growth rate of 4% a year in perpetuity and an equity risk premium of 4%, changing the risk free rate from 6% down to 2% will have profound effects on value. It is this value effect that has led some to blame the Fed for creating a “stock market bubble” and analysts across the world to wonder whether they should be doing something to counter that effect, in their search for intrinsic value.
While the mathematics that show the link between value and interest rates is simple, it is misleading because it does not tell the whole story. As I argued in the last section, interest rate movements, up or down, almost never happen in a  vacuum. The same forces that cause significant shifts in interest rates affect other inputs into the valuation and those changes can reduce or even reverse the interest rate effect:
To illustrate, the 2008 crisis that caused the T.Bond rate to plummet in the last quarter of the year also caused equity risk premiums to surge from 4.37% on September 12, 2008 to 6.43% on December 31, 2008. In the figure below, I back out the expected return on stocks and the equity risk premium from the index level each day and the expected future cash flows for each month from September 2008 to April 2015. Note that the cost of equity for the median US company rose in the last quarter of 2008, even as risk free rates declined.
Source: Damodaran.com (Implied ERP)
The expected return on equities has stayed surprisingly stable (around 8%) for much of the last 5 years, nullifying the impact of lower interest rates and casting doubt on the “Fed Bubble” story. As the crisis has receded, investor concerns have shifted to real growth, as the developed market economies (US, Euro Zone and Japan) have been slow to recover and inflation has not only stayed tame but turned to deflation in the EU and Japan. Thus, looking just at lower interest rates and making judgments on value misses the big picture.
Reacting to Low Interest Rates
Given that low interest rates have shaken up the equation, what should we do to respond? Broadly speaking, there are four responses to low interest rates:
  1. Normalize: In valuation, it is common practice to replace unusual numbers (earnings, capital expenditures and working capital) with more normalized values. Some analysts extend that lesson to risk free rates, replacing today’s “too low” rates with more normalized values. While I understand the impulse, I think it is dangerous for three reasons. The first is that “normal” is a subjective judgment. I argue, only half in jest, that you can tell how long an analyst has been in markets by looking at what he or she views as a normal riskfree rate, since normal requires a time frame and the longer that time frame, the higher normal interest rates become. The second is that if you decide to normalize the risk free rate, you have no choice but to normalize all your other macro variables as well. Consequently, you have to replace today’s equity risk premium with the premium that fits best with your normalized risk free rate and do the same with growth rates. Put differently, if you want to act like it is 2007, 1997 or 1987, when estimating the risk free rate, your risk premiums and growth rates will have to be adjusted accordingly. The third is that unlike earnings, cash flows or other company-specific variables, where you are free to make your judgment calls, the risk free rate is what you can earn on your money today, if you don’t invest in risky assets. Consequently, if you do your valuation, using a normalized risk free rate of 4% (instead of the actual risk free rate of 2%), and decide that stocks are over valued, I wish you the very best of luck putting your money in that normalized treasury bond, since it exists only in your estimation.
  2. Go intrinsic: The second option, if you believe that the market interest rate on government bonds is being skewed by central banking action to abnormally low or high levels is to replace that rate with an intrinsic interest rate. If you buy into my estimates for inflation and real growth in the last section, that would translate into using a 3.08% “intrinsic” US treasury bond rate. To preserve consistency, you should continue to use the same inflation rate and real growth as your basis for forecasting earnings and cash flow growth in your company and going the distance, you should estimate an intrinsic ERP, perhaps tying it to fundamentals.
  3. Leave it alone: The third option is to leave the risk free rate at its current levels, notwithstanding concerns that you might have about it being too low or too high. To keep your valuation in balance, though, your other inputs have to be consistent with that risk free rate. That implies using forward-looking prices for risk (equity risk premiums and default spreads) that reflect the market today and economy-wide growth and inflation rates that are consistent with the current risk free rate. Thus, if you decide to use 0.21% as the risk free rate in Euros, the combination of inflation and real growth rates you have to assume in the Euro economy have to combine to be less than 0.21%. Doing so does not imply that you believe that nominal growth will be that low but ensures that you are making the same assumptions about nominal growth in the numerator (cash flows) as you are in the denominator (through the risk free rate).
  4. Leave it alone (for now) : The last option is to leave the risk free rate at current levels for now but adjust the rate in the future (perhaps at the end of your high growth period) to your normalized or intrinsic levels. Here again, the key is to make sure that your other valuation inputs are consistent with your assumption. Thus, for the period you use the current risk free rate, you have to use equity risk premiums, growth rates and inflation expectations consistent with that rate, and as you adjust the risk free rate to its normalized or intrinsic levels, you have to adjust the rest of your inputs.
To illustrate the four options when it comes to risk free rates, I value a hypothetical average-risk company with an expected cash flow of $100 million next year, using all four options. The inputs I use for the company under each option are summarized below, with the value computed in the last column:

The four choices yield different values but the most interesting finding is that the value that I get with the “leave alone” option is lower than the values that I obtain with my other options. Consequently, those who argue that we need to replace the current risk free rate with more normalized versions because it is the “conservative” path may be ending up with estimates of value that are too high (not too low).

While I prefer the “leave alone” option, I think that the other approaches are defensible, if your macro views are significantly different from mine. The danger, as I see it, comes when you mismatch your assumptions, with two of the most egregious examples listed below:

Note that while each input into these mismatched valuations may be defensible, it is the combination that skews the value vastly downwards or upwards. If you use  or do intrinsic valuations, checking for input consistency is more critical than ever before.

Bottom line
So, what is the bottom line? Like almost everyone else, I find myself in uncharted territory, with interest rates approaching zero in many currencies and like most others, I feel the urge to “fix” the problem. There are three broad lessons that I take away from looking at the data.
  1. Central banks tweak interest rates. They don’t set them. Consequently, I am going to spend less time worrying about what Janet Yellen does in the interest rate room and more on the fundamentals that drive rates. I will also grant short shrift to anyone who uses central banks as either an excuse or looks to them as a savior in their investing.
  2. When risk free rates are abnormally low or high, it is because there are other components in the market that are abnormal, and I am not sure what is normal. For investors in the US and Europe who yearn for the normality of decades past, I am afraid that normal is not returning. We have to recalibrate our assumptions about what is normal (for interest rates, risk premiums, inflation and economic growth) and pay less heed to rules of thumb that were developed for another market (US in the 1900s) and another time.
  3. As investors, we can rage against interest rates being too low but it is what it is. We have to value companies in the markets that we are in, not the markets we wished we were in.

Financial Policy and the Role of the State

Does financial liberalization mean that LDC governments have no role to play in the financial sector? In an effort to identify how these governments can work effectively within the context of liberalized financial markets, some economists isolated seven major market failures that imply a potential role for state intervention. Their basic argument is “that (LDC) financial markets are markedly different from other markets”, “that market failures are likely to be more pervasive in these markets” and that “much of the rationale for liberalizing financial markets is based neither on a sound economic understanding of how these markets work nor on the potential scope for government intervention”. The seven market failures economists identified are the following:

(1) The “public good” nature of monitoring financial institutions: Investors need information about the solvency and management of financial institutions. Like other forms of information, monitoring is a public good – everyone who places savings in a particular financial institution would benefit from knowing that the institution was prospering or close to insolvency. But like other public goods in free-market economies, there is an undersupply of monitoring information, and consequently, risk-averse savers withhold their funds. The net result is fewer resources allocated through these institutions.

(2) Externalities of monitoring, selection, and lending: Benefits are often incurred by lenders who learn about the viability of potential projects from the monitoring, selection, and lending decisions of other lenders. Investors can also benefit from information generated by other investors on the quality of different financial institutions. Like other positive (or negative) externalities, the market provides too little information, and resources are under allocated or over allocated.

(3) Externalities of financial disruption: In the absence of government insurance (whether or not an explicit policy has been issued), the failure of one major financial institution can cause a run on the entire banking system and lead to long-term disruptions of the overall financial system.

(4) Missing and incomplete markets: In most developing countries, markets for insurance against a variety of financial (bank failure) or physical (e.g., crop failure) risks are missing. The basic problem is that information is imperfect and costly to obtain, so an LDC government has an important role in reducing these risks. It can, for example, force membership in insurance programs or require financial institutions as well as borrowers to disclose information about their assets, liabilities, and creditworthiness.

(5) Imperfect competition: Competition in the banking sector of most developing countries is extremely limited, meaning that potential borrowers usually face only a small number of suppliers of loanable funds, many of which are unwilling or unable to accommodate new and unknown customers. This is particularly true of small borrowers in the informal urban and rural sectors.

(6) Inefficiency of competitive markets in the financial sector: Theoretically, for perfectly competitive markets to function efficiently, financial markets must be complete (without uninsured risks) and information must be exogenous (freely available to all and not influenced by any one participant’s action in the market). Clearly, there are special advantages to individuals or entities with privileged information in LDC financial markets, and risk insurance is difficult, if not impossible, to obtain. As a result, unfettered financial markets may not allocate capital to its most profitable uses, and there can be substantial deviations between social and private returns to alternative investment projects. In such cases, direct government intervention – for example, by restricting certain kinds of loans and encouraging others – may partly or completely offset these imbalances.

(7) Uninformed investors: Contrary to the doctrine of consumer sovereignty, with its assumption of perfect knowledge, many investors in LDCs lack both the information and the appropriate means to acquire it in order to make rational investment decisions. Here again, governments can impose financial disclosure requirements on firms listed on local stock exchanges or require banks, for example, to inform customers of the differences between simple and compound interest rates or of the nature of penalties for early withdrawals of savings.

LDC governments have a proper role to play in regulating financial institutions, creating new institutions to fill gaps in the kinds of credit provided by private institutions (e.g., micro loans to small farmers and trades people), providing consumer protection, ensuring bank solvency, encouraging fair competition, and ultimately improving the allocation of financial resources and promoting macroeconomic stability. As in other areas of economic development, the critical issue for financial policy is not about free markets versus government intervention but rather about how both can work together (along with the NGO sector) to meet the urgent needs of poor people.

——

Rashid Javed is an Asian author. He writes articles about various topics of accounting and economics such as elasticity of demand and cash book.

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17th March 2011 INTRODUCTION : A commercial bank is a business entity that deals in banking with a view to make profits. Every commercial bank aims to make profits in such a way that it does not compromise on its objective of liquidity, which is vital for its own sec… Read >

Financial Importance Behind a Short Term Investment Plan

Investments can be both short termed or long termed covering the interest and financial planning done by the investors. This is because behind the management of money, investments plays a major role which every investor cares to understand and plan accordingly. To begin with an individual interested in investing should decide upon the percentage of his income he care to put on a short tem investment plan. Based on the savings and financial conditions these plans related to investment should always be made touching all the factors of risks and loses. To avail the benefits found in the present market condition, many individuals go for investing for a shorter period of time. This is because fast changing rate of interest on commodities like silver, gold and other stocks attract the investors to put some amount based on the same after certain worth countable planning that can incur a profit subsequently.

It is found always necessary to set some financial goal for a better and secured future. Such plans based on the economical and financial conditions of an individual can be either purchase of a house, a retirement policy or any similar aims that involves discipline investment planning before achieving it. People go for long time investment plans to meet their goals related to economy and finance. But if he fails to appear in any optimized solution before investing on such plans, he should approach or hire a financial planner with no trace of hesitation. This is because these financial planners can provide best services catering all the demands and expectations of any client or customers that seeks his profitable advices.

A financial planner has the potential to look and estimate about all the unseen risk factors and can perfectly estimate if any losses can erupt abruptly behind any short term investment policy. He is a skilled person to elaborate every nook and corner of an investment plan showing both the positive and negative aspects of the same. Moreover, in long term investment policies, the factors concerned with the tax benefits, money management, etc can be best monitored by these financial experts. So at any point of time slot an investor should consider these factors and consult a financial if unless he fails to focus on all the possibilities and outcomes behind an investment. jacyspin providing the long term and short term investment, portfolio management services

Data Loss and Its Financial Impacts

Organizations have always centered on protecting their data from loss due to outside threats. They have centered on each and every external things that can lead to loss of their precious data. However its now time for them to center on data loss from other angel: data loss from inside the organization.

The data loss can occur due to several internal reasons including accidental deletion, virus attack, software malfunction, and hardware failure. These data may include financial data, bank statements, important mails, completed or incomplete projects, important business contacts and some other information that is precious for you and your business.

There is a big financial impact of data loss on organizations as well as individual computer users. Sometimes the data loss can create serious problems for a whole country or state when it comes to confidential security information loss. In these events of data loss, sometimes the whole organization may destroy because the lost data may include the important information of their clients who provides business to them.

Another financial impact include when a completed project that is ready to send to the client has deleted or lost. The financial loss depends on the amount of lost data as well as its importance.

In cases, where you have lost your important data and you don’t have any backup, it is very important to recover your lost data to save your organization and to keep your financial position. You can perform this task with the help of data recovery solutions that are available in the form of data recovery software.

Data recovery software is specially designed data recovery utilities to get your lost data back. These software uses advanced scanning algorithms to search and locate the lost data and recover them. These software are varies from operating system to operating system and file system to file system. Before purchasing data recovery software, you should make sure that the particular software will support your OS and File system or not.

Stellar Information Systems Ltd is a leading data recovery software and service provider company that can help your in recovery your lost data from all popular operating system in all possible cases of data loss. The company provides powerful and easy to use data recovery software for Windows, Mac, Linux, UNIX, and Novell and their popular file systems. Stellar provides data recovery service to recover the lost data from physically damaged hard drive. The company has Asia’s first and only Class 100 Clean Room (specially designed dust free data recovery labs).

The Most Common Causes of Financial Problems

Most of us know when we hit a financial disaster, usually we can even trace the beginning of the process that led to the financial failure, but the problem seems to be the fact that some people keep repeating the mistakes, or adapting new problematic methods of trying and solving problems.

The wise financial planner would first consider his own strong and weak points before making financial decisions and would draw conclusions for the experiences he had in the past, the few points that ultimately lead to financial disasters that I will discuss here are very basic and natural, yet many people do not practice the least amount of caution when making plans.

The first and most prominent problem with bad financial planning is that the planner has no financial education, in this case I would strongly advise seeking professional help. Most of do not have formal financial education, and many of us do not understand the financial basics that rule the markets, other do not want to go into these calculations, but all these groups should start by admitting that they do not have the knowledge of dealing with financial planning and look for someone who does. The great benefit of listening to advise of experts is that it teaches you things, the approach to financial planning, the basics of a new financial plan and much more, it is very possible that in a few months you will be much more educated and better informed in a way that will allow you to start making your own calls.

The second problem is making decisions and planes letting other people manage you finance for you, and I don’t mean letting you professional financial planner but friends, neighbors and family. Even though these people have the best intentions, it is very clearly your own responsibility to take care of your personal finance, and as much as it is unpleasant to make financial plans and take care of your personal finance it is a fact of life you must practice.

The third, and last mistake we are going to discuss is choosing the wrong kind of financial advisor, some people are tempted to let the wrong kind of people manage their finance situation, this includes insurance experts, tax experts and other financial experts of all sorts. It is important that you find a person that you have good communication with , that understands you and what financial help you are seeking, and that this expert be an expert on the issues you need help the most, do not let personal relationships, family connections and business relation dictate the financial expert you use, it is of extreme importance that this person is as close to being perfect for you as possible. The best thing to do is to look for a person that works in a financial office and makes his money by advising and managing personal financial accounts, someone that has been around for long and that will have the experience to guide you through the processes.

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World Financial Group Overview

World Financial Group Overview

If you’re searching into the World Financial Group home business opportunity, don’t join… at least, not before reading through this overview. In this short article overview, I will concentrate on World Financial Group background, the various services they market, their compensation plan and, whether or not WFG is a fraud.

World Financial Group, is based out of Georgia and was started in 1991 by Hubert Humphrey. Before starting WMA, Humphrey was the #1 Producer for A.L. Williams, now known as Primerica. When Art Williams sold the company to Sandy Weill, Humphrey decided to venture out on his own and start his own financial services direct sales company.

Currently, Hubert Humphrey is no longer associated with World Financial Group, which is now owned by AEGON, one of the world’s largest life insurance and pension groups. WFG markets various financial services, including life insurance coverage, investments and mortgage products though the multilevel marketing business model. Some of World Financial Group strategic partners include some big names in the financial services arena: Western Reserve Life, Pacific Life, Allianz, Transamerica, Nationwide, John Hancock, Hartford Life and Investment Advisors International.

At this moment, the company has a sales force of 85,000 life insurance licensed representatives, and is doing business in the United States and Canada. It’s said that the company recruits close to 10,000 new associates every single month, which is pretty amazing for a financial services-based direct sales company.

To sign up the company, there is a start-up price of $100 ($125 in Canada) plus any qualification costs that the state in which you live charges. More or less, it will probably total anywhere between $500-$1,000 for all your licenses, and about 20-40 hours of certification time. Unlike other multi-level marketing businesses that enable you in making money the minute you join, WFG demands it’s reps to get licensed before they can get paid. And, while this might look like a negative point to some individuals, keep in mind that because you’re dealing with financial products, you must be certified. The great news is that you can make some pretty nice commissions, to the tune of $500-$1,000 for one sale, as soon as your able to write business.

Another aspect of World Financial Group’s pay plan is that even though there is a qualification process you and your team have to go through, you only need a few active producers to create big money. In fact, upon reviewing the compensation plan, it pretty impressive that you only need about 15-25 active producers to produce $150,000-$250,000 a year. Now, clearly you will need to recruit much more than 25 people to get 25 producers, especially since only a few will actually get licensed, and of those who actually get licensed, only a few will produce. Even still… building 25 producers, who sell Two or three products monthly, is a lot more do-able than building a team of 15,000 to 20,000 reps.

There are a ton of incentives in the compensation plan including various trips, a Mercedes Benz, a Role, Rings you get for going over $100,000 a year in income and a variety of bonuses you can earn.

With that said, you do have to be aware of all the fees you can incur for building your WFG business. Besides the licensing costs I mentioned earlier, there are costs to do other lines of business, especially if that line of business requires a state license. There’s also E&O Insurance (Malpractice insurance for financial representatives) that will amount to close to $100 per month. You may also get state fees to do business in other states. If you’re serious about building a financial services organization with WFG, then don’t get too caught up with these fees. After all, if you were to begin a traditional financial services firm, you would easily pay much, much more than this.

In summary, WFG is a legit business. It is absolutely not a rip-off. If you put in the effort and time, you can build a strong business that can potentially pay you multiple 6-figures a year. With that said, simply joining WFG does not mean you are guaranteed success.

At the end of the day, your ability to succeed will depend on whether or not you can brand yourself and generate an never-ending flow of leads. It is important, if you are serious, that you receive the coaching you need to help you sponsor 10-20 new people a month into your team.

Without knowing how to produce leads, even though WFG is a great opportunity. However you will be leaving a lot of money on the table if you don’t have an automatic system to generate leads for your WFG Business.

Learn more on how to generate more leads for your WFG Business Here.

Learn more on how to generate more leads for your WFG Business Here.

You Can Find The Original Post On How To Sponsor More World Financial Group Reps And Acquire More Customers Here

Donegal Creameries PLC (DGC) – Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis Review

companyprofilesandconferences.com included a new research report on “Donegal Creameries PLC (DGC) – Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis Review” provides you with an in-depth strategic analysis of the company’s businesses and operations.

Donegal Creameries PLC (DGC) – Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis Review

This comprehensive SWOT profile of Donegal Creameries PLC provides you an in-depth strategic analysis of the company’s businesses and operations. The profile has been compiled by GlobalData to bring to you a clear and an unbiased view of the company’s key strengths and weaknesses and the potential opportunities and threats. The profile helps you formulate strategies that augment your business by enabling you to understand your partners, customers and competitors better. http://www.companyprofilesandconferences.com/report/Donegal-Creameries-PLC-DGC-Financial-and-Strategic-SWOT-Analysis-Review.html

This company report forms part of GlobalData’s -Profile on Demand’ service, covering over 50,000 of the world’s leading companies. Once purchased, GlobalData’s highly qualified team of company analysts will comprehensively research and author a full financial and strategic analysis of Donegal Creameries PLC including a detailed SWOT analysis, and deliver this direct to you in pdf format within two business days. (excluding weekends).

The profile contains critical company information including*,

– Business description – A detailed description of the company’s operations and business divisions. – Corporate strategy – Analyst’s summarization of the company’s business strategy. – SWOT Analysis – A detailed analysis of the company’s strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats. – Company history – Progression of key events associated with the company. – Major products and services – A list of major products, services and brands of the company. – Key competitors – A list of key competitors to the company. – Key employees – A list of the key executives of the company. – Executive biographies – A brief summary of the executives’ employment history. – Key operational heads – A list of personnel heading key departments/functions. – Important locations and subsidiaries – A list and contact details of key locations and subsidiaries of the company. – Detailed financial ratios for the past five years – The latest financial ratios derived from the annual financial statements published by the company with 5 years history. – Interim ratios for the last five interim periods – The latest financial ratios derived from the quarterly/semi-annual financial statements published by the company for 5 interims history.

For more information kindly visit : http://www.companyprofilesandconferences.com/report/Donegal-Creameries-PLC-DGC-Financial-and-Strategic-SWOT-Analysis-Review.html

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Live Well Financial Buying a Home with Reverse Mortgage

This type of mortgage is ideal for seniors. This is used to free the home equity of the real estate as either one lump sum payment or stream payments. The homeowner can make his house as collateral for a loan, which he is free from paying anything in the agreement. The mortgage is delayed when the property owners die, leave the property to go to home for the elderly and when the property is sold.

There are a lot of homeowners who are eligible for a reverse mortgage that see such program is only for credit restructuring purposes only. But they do not have any idea that they can use this to buy a new house. They can make it possible by getting a lump sum payment that has similar amount to the remaining balance of forward mortgage. If they have more financial resources, they can even pay the house in full. After that, they can use the reverse mortgage to aid them compensate the expenses they incurred when they purchase the property in cash. Lending institutions like Live Well Financial can provide you a better explanation regarding this program. Such company focuses on this kind of financial assistance to aspiring homeowners.

As what was stated earlier, this type of financial assistance is available to seniors only. He must be at least 62 years old. Applicant must also possess a property. If the property has still some existing loan balance, it must be low enough to be cleared out during the settlement. He needs to stay in that house also. It is required that he obtains consumer information. This is given by a certified counselor from the HECM before releasing the loan. He can quickly look for eligible HUD counseling agencies through the internet. These agents normally provide free service or have low professional fee.

Live Well Financial lending company is strict when it comes to the requirements of this program. It is said that not all houses are qualified for this type of mortgage. It needs to be a single family house. The condos that are HUD approved or manufactured can be eligible. The amount that a loan applicant can get from reverse mortgage varies, age is considered to be the primary determinant. The amount will also rely on the latest interest rate as well as the value appraised for the house. Hence, it is wise to avail the free consultation of Live Well Financial to be properly oriented before applying for reverse mortgage.

Receiving the payments may vary too. You can have it in tenure. You can get monthly payments. But you have to be sure that at least one of the borrowers is still staying and he will continue to live in that house. You can also opt to receive it through terms. This implies that you receive payment at a particular period of months. You can also have it by line of credit. This has no pre-determined time. You can receive the amounts you hoped at your preferred time until the credit is exhausted. You can also have through modified tenure. This provides you monthly payment with the combination of line or credit as long as you continue to stay in that house. Lastly, you can opt for a modified term. This is the same with the modified tenure but with a specified period.

Live Well Financial lending company has truly helped seniors who are property rich but do not have enough financial resources to use. Through this program, they can live more peacefully and improve their lifestyle.

Financial Advisor Marketing Creating Your Foundation with Vision and Mission

Top financial advisors (as well as top producers in all industries) who have a great advisory business (and life) incorporate a mission statement that is built on principles.

The first step to creating an amazing financial advisory practice and life is to decide what you want. Not deciding what you want, in my opinion, is the most common reason why most financial advisors fail or never reach their potential. Once you decide what you want, you are ready to create a mission statement and a clear vision.

In Steven Covey’s book, “Principle Centered Leadership,” he shares that your mission statement should include ” four basic human needs: psychological or growth, social or relationship, economic or money, and spiritual or contribution.”

Principle based mission statements remain stable regardless of the outside circumstances in the economy, market or political environment. A mission statement that is based on principles should include: values of your financial advisory firm, the niche you serve, financial products and services you offer, how you offer your product or service as well as how your advisory firm gives back to the community.

Step One: Determine the core values of your financial advisory businessHaving clarity on what we value makes decisions easy. Roy Disney shared, “When your values are clear to you, making decisions becomes easier.”

Select the top values that govern your financial advisory firm and life.

Identify circle your top four financial advisory business values from the list below or select others that may better represent your firm.

Fun

Relationships

Honesty

Delegation

Learning

Community Education

Connection

Volunteer Work

Education

Fitness

Balance

Spiritual Connection

Financial Literacy

Advice

Creating

Serving

Teaching

Compassion

Financial Security

Include all members of your financial advisory firm, when creating your financial advisor mission statement. Buy-in from your team will do more for execution than almost anything else you can do.

Step two: What affluent niche market do you serve in your financial advisory practice?Be as specific as possible when identifying your ideal niche market, for example traditional affluent women is a better niche market description than all women. Corporate law firms is a better niche market description than simply all lawyers.

Step three: What goals do you aspire to achieve, in your financial advisory firm?For example, the goal of our affluent women niche market is to provide a legacy of financial literacy for non- traditional and combination affluent women. Your legacy may be to educate and advise corporate attorneys and their firms on risk management through disability and overhead insurance products.

Step four: Identify the various roles you offer as a financial advisor to your affluent niche market.Examples may include debt counseling, budgeting support, risk assessments, risk management, tax planning, insurance analysis, life planning, financial analysis and financial planning, investment planning and/or estate planning.

Other services for affluent discerning clients may include concierge services, animal services and care, cosmetic surgeons, medical or dental referrals, travel agencies and anything else your affluent clients desire.

Step 5: Draft your financial advisory mission statement.

Step 6: Confirm that your draft mission statement compliments your purpose and “why.”

Step 7: Finalize your mission statement for your financial advisory firm.For example: Advisor Marketing Practices provides solutions to increase retention, referrals and repeat business for advisors, and the firms that support them, through relationship marketing programs. Our goal is to improve the lives of all of our stakeholders by elevating their business life. We offer this through a fun, educational learning environment. Our programs are also designed to help improve financial literacy of all clients, especially women.

An example of a mission statement for XYZ financial advisor firm would be – XYZ Financial Advisory Firm provides objective comprehensive life, financial, estate and investment planning services to non-traditional women facing a life transition. Our goal is to provide a combination of programs that increase financial literacy and also provide social connection. We offer community educational workshops each month to ensure financial literacy for all women.

Once you are clear on your financial advisory business mission statement, the next step is to see your future clearly which is done through your vision.

Vision your future!Our imagination often is referred to as our inner vision. When used properly, it can bring you anything your heart desires. Unfortunately most financial advisors (and people in general) dont possess the ability to control what enters their minds. When our minds and imagination are out of control, the result is a life that is also out of control.

Follow these steps to create the inner vision you desire.

Set your intention

Interestingly, the majority of top financial advisors, we have interviewed, who have attended our advisor marketing practices training, have shared that setting intentions for their day, life and financial advisory business had the greatest impact on their bottom line as wells as their overall happiness.

Create a Visualization Board and BookYour financial advisory visualization board and book is a collage of pictures. The goal of it is to motivate and inspire you to achieve your dreams. Include pictures that represent your ideal financial advisory business, specifically the affluent clients you wish to serve, the income you want to earn, and the impact you make in your niche market, etc.

Include personal pictures that represent your ideal life, too.

Examples include pictures of your family or future family (if you dont have one), dream vacation spots, favorite inspirational quotes and pictures of your ideal look (physically and mentally), that resonate with your goal.

Each morning, when you rise and evening when you retire, review your visualization book. After reviewing, take a few moments, close your eyes and see your ideal financial advisory firm and life.

In addition, to creating a visualization book that represents your ideal financial advisory business and life, you may also want to create a board. Viewing the board during the day can help to keep you focused on your ideal goals and objectives. Experts agree that visualizing an event can dramatically improve our odds of achieving the result!

Continue to spend time working on your mission and also getting clear on what you want in your financial advisor marketing and business plan as well as your life. Then visualize exactly how it will look when you achieve it.

If you want to learn more about including a strong mission statement and vision in your Financial Advisor Marketing Plan go to the Advisor Marketing System and attend our next advisor marketing webinar.

Explain the circular flow of income with the inclusion of the financial sector.

INTRODUCTION:
~ The three sector model is actually an extension of the two-sector model.
~ Apart from households and business firms, it includes the financial sector on account of the savings and investments made by households and firms.
~ Thus, the three sector economy involves factor market, product market, capital market and money market.
*ASSUMPTIONS:
i) There is some amount of savings and investments by the households and the firms.
ii) There is no economic activity by the government.
iii) There is absence of international trade.
iv) Saving is equal to investments.
*ILLUSTRATION:

*EXPLANATION:
~ The above illustration depicts the circular flow of income in a three sectored economy.
~ The three sectors comprise of households, business firms and financial sector.
~ The financial sectors evolves on account of savings and investment made by households and firms.
~ The inner circular flow represents the REAL FLOW of income whereby the households supply the factors of production to the firms in the form of land, labour, Capital and Enterprise.

~ The firms, in return, provide the households with goods and services that are produced by using the above factors of production.
~ The outer circular flow of income represents the MONEY FLOW of income.
~ The money flows from the firm to the households in the form of rent, wages, interest and profits. It is a reward/income for supplying the factors of production to the firms.
~ Similarly money flows from the households to the firms in the form of purchase of goods and services for satisfaction of wants. This is the consumption expenditure of the households that becomes the income of the firms.
~ However, households save a part of their income and thus, the expenditure on good and services decline. So, saving reduce the flow of money expenditure to the firms.
~ but, savings need not reduce the aggregate expenditure as firms undertake investment expenditure on capital goods i.e savings in the economy are converted into investment expenditure through the financial sector.

~ Thus, the circular flow of income and expenditure continue at a steady level as savings = investment.
*CONCLUSION:
~ Thus, the circular flow of income continues when savings and investment are equal.
~ However, any imbalance between savings and investments will affect the circular flow of income when savings are greater than investment, there will be fall in income, output and employment and hence the flow of money will contract. On the other hand, when investments exceed savings, there will be an increase in income, output and employment and hence the flow of money will expand.
~ Thus the circular flow of income will fail to continue at a steady level unless the government intervenes and takes some preventive or corrective measures to ensure stability in the circular flow of income.

APR, AER and EAR are terms used in financial advertising. What do they mean

Have you ever scanned the acres of financial advertising and wondered what APR, AER and EAR really mean? You’ll invariably find one or another of these terms in every advertisement for a lending or savings product. Well you’re certainly not alone.

The Financial Services Authority lays down the exact formulas for calculating APR, AER and EAR’s. Every UK financial institution then has to stick by the formulas and the FSA lays down rules as to when and how the figures have to be disclosed. There are no exclusions! Errors invariably result in big fines for the offending company and compensation for any borrower or saver affected. But it’s still no good if the public simply don’t understand what the terms mean.

So here’s our bit to lift the mists of misunderstanding!

APR is most commonly seen. It stands for “annual percentage rate” and is used to express the true cost of the money borrowed on credit cards, loans and mortgages. The APR calculation takes account of the basic interest rate, when it is charged (i.e. annually, monthly, weekly or daily), all initial fees and any other costs you are obliged to pay. As lenders all calculate APR the same way, it enables you to make direct cost comparisons between competing lending products.

So if one bank is offering you a mortgage at 4.75% plus an arrangement fee of 450 and a building society is offering you an interest rate of 5.1% with a 100 fee, then the APR figures will show you which of the two mortgages is the cheaper.

There are then two further expressions you’ll see that include the term APR. X% APR variable means that the borrowing cost is currently X% but the rate of interest is not fixed and is likely to vary (up or down).

The second is X% APR Typical variable. You’ll regularly see this expression in loan promotions. It means that the lender cannot be specific about the interest rate you’d be charged as their rates vary, usually in response to your personal credit history and the amount of money you want to borrow. Therefore X% APR Typical variable, is used to provide a general impression of the interest rate you can expect to be offered. The addition of the word “Typical” means that at least two thirds of applications that the advertiser approves are at that APR or cheaper . Then if a loan is offered to you, the paperwork will reveal the actual APR or APR variable you are being offered.

Now lets turn our attention to EAR. EAR is the abbreviation for “equivalent annual rate”. It’s used to demonstrate the full percentage cost of overdrafts and accounts that can be in credit and also go overdrawn. The calculation accurately illustrates the cost of the overdraft facility. In common with the APR calculation, EAR takes into account of the basic rate of interest charged, when the interest is charged, plus any additional charges. So in most respects EAR and APR do the same thing it’s just that APR applies to pure lending products whilst EAR applies to a product, such as a banking current account, that can be held in credit or go overdrawn.

Incidentally, the EAR and APR figures always exclude any Payment Protection Insurance you’ve bought to guarantee that the monthly repayments will be maintained if you’re off work due to accident, sickness or unemployment. That’s because this insurance is always an optional extra and is never a condition of the lending.

AER on the other hand is only used in relation to savings and interest based investments. It’s concerned with the rate of interest you’ll receive on your money. AER is short for “annual equivalent rate”. It shows the adjusted rate of interest you’ll receive at the end of a twelve-month period taking into account the regularity of which interest is credited to the account. (This is necessary as the frequency of payment has a compounding affect on the amount of interest you actually receive). The formula for AER also removes the affect of any promotional offer that disappears after a few months a popular ploy used by financial institutions to send their savings products to the top of the Best Buy lists.

You’ll probably forget most of this as it’s yawningly boring but we hope we’ve shed light on some of the most important financial jargon you’re faced with!

Michael writes for Brokers Online who offer life insurance and most UK financial services including secured loans and loan and mortgage payment protection insurance.

We Want Entrepreneurs Exhaust All Financial Aid Offered by the Government of Cospedal

Highlight the gradual increase in the number of autonomous, corporations and the decline for third consecutive month of unemployment data

Spain, June 12, 2013 – The Minister of Employment and the Economy of the regional executive, Carmen Home, said today that the Law on Entrepreneurs, both in its regional and national responds to the needs of entrepreneurs and help accelerate the development of our economy.

In this regard, he said that there were many obstacles that previously prevented the employer was launched to start a business, but now, thanks to the measures taken, any entrepreneur can start your project with a simple communication prior or statement charge, making all the arrangements in the same website, you will not risk all their personal assets and pay VAT on invoices that have not been collected. In his view, these measures will contribute to that those entrepreneurs who had doubts, definitely are launched into the world of entrepreneurship.

On trade, Casero said the Governments objective is Cospedal modernize the sector and increase competitiveness. As an example of this commitment, Casero recalled the launch of two lines worth 2.5 million euros to cover the cost of salaries for workers who are employed by small businesses during the twelve Sundays or holidays that can open their doors annually, or overtime pay if the worker is already part of the template.

Within this line of support, Casero also highlighted the five actions under the Investment Plan and Employment Creation on the introduction of new technologies and the use of electronic commerce, the promotion of quality in trade, with the intended enhance the design of products that can be marketed, promoting priority trade areas, and the establishment of cooperatives between business formulas that make the sector.

Good economic data During an interview in Castilla-La Mancha Television, Home has been worth that freelancers in our region continue to exist high, the pace of hiring good-more than one million contracts since the beginning of the legislature, and the index of corporations, superior in creating regarding business mortality, as well as more than 200 people a day in recent months have found a job.

Finally, the Minister of Employment and the Economy has also stressed that macroeconomic data indicate that things are changing. Sales of industrial production in Castilla-La Mancha, the increase in sales of commercial vehicles or business confidence index indicate that the situation is corrected and we glimpse a better future, he concluded.

Press Contact: Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Media Relations Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Address: Avda Ireland No 14 512-212-1139 http://www.castillalamancha.es/gobierno/empleoyeconomia

Jack Simony, Founder of the Whitehaven Financial Group, to be Honored With Human Rights Advocates I

NEW YORK, Sept. 22 – Jack Simony, founder of the Whitehaven Financial Group, a litigation finance firm based in New York City, will be awarded this year’s -Defender Award- by Human Rights Advocates International (HRAI), a United Nations non-governmental organization.

The organization, which is dedicated to promoting and protecting human rights in the United States and abroad, grants the award annually to an individual who has managed, through their efforts, to effect positive change in the lives of those in need.

-Jack Simony, despite his youth, is one of the founding fathers of litigation finance,- said HRAI Chairman Gerard I. Nierenberg. -He found a unique way to help those in need while also meeting the needs of Wall Street, creating the classic win-win scenario we look for. We are pleased to offer the 2010 -Defender Award’ to Jack for his obvious caring for those less fortunate than he and for his creativity in finding financial solutions that work.-

Since founding the Whitehaven Financial Group in 2001, Simony’s innovative approach has helped countless individuals who have found themselves trapped in -litigation limbo- when their traumatic injuries impacted their ability to provide for themselves and their families.

-Typically, an injured tort victim in the United States can wait several years until his or her case for justice is heard by the courts, and given the extent of their injuries, this wait may be almost unmanageable,- said Simony. -We at Whitehaven are proud to have helped people, in their darkest hours, to stay in their homes, pay for necessary medical care, and provide for their families while awaiting their day in court.-

HRAI will present the -Defender Award- to Simony at an honorary dinner on Thursday, December 9th at the St. Regis Hotel, New York City.

The Value of Financial Management

Financial management is the efficient and effective management of a company’s capital funds to accomplish the objectives of the business entity. It deals in raising capital funds and allocating it through proper capital business budgeting. Budgeting that includes not only long term but also allocating short term resources like current assets. If the business is a corporation, financial management also deals with policies related to the distribution of dividends to its shareholders. Financial management services in general are economic services provided by financial consultancy groups in managing clients’ company funds, with the intention of attaining a financial goal. This includes the allocation of the financial resources, and the creation of a financial management system. When a company decides to hire the services of a financial consultancy group, the service that comes with it includes tax management services.

In the business world, financial management services offered by consultancy groups have a very wide scope of responsibility. They sometimes refer to this scope as the five -A’s of financial management. They are Anticipation, which is the responsibility to estimate the financial needs of the company; Acquisition which is the duty to collect or to find the means to collect financial sources for the company, Allocation which is proper disbursement of finance resources to purchase fixed and current assets for the company, Appropriation which is the proper distribution of profits among the shareholders and other investors but also allocates part of that profit as company reserve and finally Assessment which is the proper control of all financial activities of the company.

In any business financial management has two distinct functions namely executive and the operational routine function. The executive functions includes estimating capital requirements, determining capital structure, estimating cash flow, investment decisions, allocation of surpluses, deciding the acquisition of additional finance, negotiating for additional finance and checking every now and then the financial performance of the company.

The routine function of the financial management group is the supervision of cash receipts and payments, safeguarding the cash balances of the company, of its securities and insurance policies, caring mechanical details of financing and record keeping and reporting the day to day business activities of the company.

Financial management is the most important area in the field of business management. All other management sectors of a company such as production, marketing, and human resources department all depend on financial management for their resources. It must be remembered that efficient financial management is required for survival, growth and success of the business entity.

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