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Differences Between Financial Accounting And Cost Accounting

The main differences between financial accounting and cost accounting are given as under.

1.Financial accounting provides information about the business in general way.Financial accounting tells about the profit and loss and financial position of the business.Cost accounting provides information to the management for proper planning,control and decision making.

2. Financial accounting classifies,records and analyses the transactions in subjective manner or according to the nature of expenses.Cost accounting records the expenditure in an objective manner or according to the purposes for which the cost are incurred.

3.Financial accounts are the accounts of the whole business.Cost accounting is only a part of financial accounts.

4. Financial accounts are relate to commercial transactions of the business.Cost accounts are related to transactions connected with the manufacture of goods and services.

5.Financial accounts disclose the net profit or loss of the business as a whole.Cost accounts disclose profit or loss of each product, job or service.

Dealing with Low Interest rates: Investing and Corporate Finance Lessons

A few months ago, I tagged along with my wife and daughter as they went on a tour of the Federal Reserve Building in downtown New York. While the highlight of the tour is that you get to see large stacks of US dollars in the basement of the building, I considered making myself persona non grata with my immediate family by asking the guide (a very nice Fed employee) about the location of the interest rate room. That, of course, is the room where Janet Yellen comes in every morning and sets interest rates. I am sure that you can visualize her pulling the levers that sets T.Bond rates, mortgage rates and corporate rates and the power that comes with that act. If that sounds over the top, that is the impression you are left with, not only from reading news stories about central banks, but also from opinion pieces from some economists and investment advisors. I know that investors, analysts and CFOs are all rendered off balance by low interest rates, but I will argue that the techniques that they use to compensate are more likely to get them in trouble than solve their problems.
The what: Interest rates are at historic lows across the globe
There is little to debate. Interest rates are lower than they have been in a generation and you can see it in this graph of the US 10-year treasury bond rate going back several decades:

US 10-year T.Bond rates at the end of each year
But it is not just the US dollar where low interest rates prevail, as illustrated by the German government 10-year Euro bond rate, the Japanese government 10-year Yen bond rate and the Swiss Government 10-year Swiss franc rate trend lines:

Ten-year Government Bond Rates: End of each period
In fact, on the Swiss Franc, the 10-year bond rates rates have not just dropped but have hit zero and kept going to -0.09%, leading to the almost unfathomable phenomenon of negative interest rates on long term borrowing. A world where savers have to pay banks to keep their savings and borrowers are paid money to borrow turns everything that we have learned in economics on its head and it is therefore no surprise that even seasoned investors and analysts are unsure of what to do next.
The why: Its not just central banks
Why are interest rates so low? I know that the conventional wisdom is that it is central bank policy that has driven them there, but is that true? To answer that question, I decided to do go back to basics.
The Fundamentals
While market interest rates are set by demand and supply, as they are in any other market, there are fundamentals that determine that rate. In particular, the interest rate on an investment with no default risk (a guaranteed or risk free investment) can be written as the sum of two components:
Interest rate on a guaranteed investment = Expected inflation + Expected real interest rate
This is the simplified version of the classic Fisher equation and it is true by construction. In fact, many analysts use it to decompose market interest rates; thus if the US treasury bond rate is at 2.00% and expected inflation is 1.25%, the real interest rate is backed out at 0.75%. In the long term, I would argue that a real interest rate has to be backed up by a real growth rate in the economy. After all, you cannot deliver a 2% real interest rate in an economy growing at only 1% a year in the long term, though you can get short term deviations between the two numbers. Thus, in the long term, the interest rate on a guaranteed investment can be rewritten as:
Interest rate on a guaranteed investment = Expected inflation + Expected real growth rate
How well does this simplistic equation hold up in practice? Testing it is hard, especially when you can observe only actual inflation and real growth but not expected inflation and real growth. However, we also know that expectations for inflation and real growth are driven, for better or worse, by recent history; thus expected inflation increases after periods of high inflation and decreases after periods of low inflation, thus making actual inflation and real growth reasonable proxies for expected values. The final number we need to test out this relationship is the interest rate on a guaranteed investment, and we use the US 10-year treasury bond rate as the stand in for that number, with the concession that the last 5 years have shaken investor faith in the guarantee.
Source: FRED (Federal Reserve in St. Louis)
Even if you take issue with my proxies for expected inflation (the actual inflation rate in the US each year, as measured by the CPI), real growth (the real growth rate in US GDP and the interest rate on a guaranteed investment, the graph sends a powerful message that risk free rates are driven by inflation and real growth expectations. If expected inflation is low and real growth is anemic, as has been the case since 2008, interest rates will be low as well and they would have been low, with or without central bank intervention.
The Central Bank Effect
Do central banks have influence over interest rates? Of course, but the mechanisms they use are surprisingly limited. In the United States, the only rate that the Fed sets is the Fed Funds rate, a rate at which banks can borrow or lend money overnight. Thus, if the Fed wants to raise (lower) interest rates, it has historically hiked (cut) the Fed Funds rate and hoped that bond markets (treasury and corporate) respond accordinly. One way to measure the effect of Fed action is to compute the difference between the actual US treasury bond rate each period and the “intrinsic” treasury bond rate (computed as the sum of inflation and real GDP growth that year):
Source: FRED
Note that the Fed Funds rate hit zero in 2009 and has stayed there for the last five years, effectively eliminating it as a tool for controlling rates. Perhaps driven by desperation and partly motivated by the savior complex, the Fed has turned to a relatively unused tool in its arsenal and bought large quantities of US treasury bond in the market for the last five years, the much-talked about Quantitative Easing (QE). While it is true that T.Bond rates have stayed below intrinsic interest rates over the last 5 years, the effect of QE (at least to my eyes) seems to modest.
As the economy comes back to life, all eyes have turned towards Janet Yellen and the Fed and Fed-watching has become the central focus for many investors. While that is understandable, it is worth remembering that in today’s economic environment, with low inflation and real growth, the removal of the Fed prop will not cause interest rates to pop to 5% or 6% . In fact, based upon the numbers in the most recent year, the intrinsic interest rate is 3.08% and if the central banking props disappear, that would be the number towards which US treasury bond rates move.

Given the evidence to the contrary, it is puzzling that investors continue to hold on to the belief that central banks set interest rates and can change them on whim, but I think that the delusion serves both sides (investors and central banks) well. Investors, whipsawed by market and economic forces that are uncontrollable, feel comfort in attributing the power to set interest rates to central banks. It also allows investors to attribute every phenomenon that they have trouble explaining to central banking machinations and interest rates that are either “too high” or “too low”. Quantitative Easing in all its forms has proved to be absolutely indispensable as a bogey man that you can blame for the failure of active investing, the rise and fall of gold, and bubbles of every type. Central banks, which are really more akin to the Wizard of Oz, in their powers, than Masters of the Universe, are glad to play along, since their power comes from the illusion that they have real power.

The Crisis Effect
There is another factor at play that may be more powerful than central banks, at least over short periods, and that is the perception of a crisis. Whatever the origins or form of the crisis, investors respond with fear, and flee to safety. That “flight to quality” often manifests itself in declining interest rates on bonds issued by governments that are perceived as “higher quality”, and may push those rates well below intrinsic levels. Looking at the chart where we outline the gap between the T.Bond rate and its intrinsic value, the quarter where we saw the US 10-year treasury bond rate drop the most, relative to its intrinsic value, was the last quarter of 2008, where the crisis in financial markets led to a rush into US treasuries. That translated into a precipitous drop in treasury rates across the board, with the 10-year rate dropping from 3.66% on September 12, 2008,  to 2.2% at the end of 2008, and the T. Bill rate declining from 1.62% to 0.02% over the same period.

Source: FRED- Constant Maturity Rates on 3-month and 10-year treasuries

One of the few constants over the last six years has been that we lurch from one crisis to another, with local problems quickly going global. While there are some who may argue that this is a passing phase, I believe that this is part and parcel of globalization, one of the negatives that need to get offset against its positives. As economies and markets become increasingly interconnected, I think that the recurring crisis mode will be a permanent feature of market. One consequence of that may be that market interest rates on government bonds will settle below their intrinsic values, a permanent “crisis discount”, with or without central banking intervention.

The Interest Rate Effect 
The level of interest rates matter for all of us, as investors, consumers and businesses. For investors, interest rates drive expected returns on investments of all types through a very simple process:
Expected Return (r) = Interest rate on a risk free investment + Risk Premium
That expected return then determines what we will be willing to pay for a risky asset, with lower expected returns translating into higher prices. For businesses, these expected return becomes hurdle rates (costs of equity and capital) that they use to decide not only whether and where they should invest their money but plays a role in how much they borrow and how much to return to stockholders (as dividends or buybacks).
If the risk free rate drops and you leave the risk premiums and cash flows unchanged, the effect on value is unambiguously positive, with value rising as risk free rates drop. Thus, if you have a business that has $100 million in expected cash flows next year, with a growth rate of 4% a year in perpetuity and an equity risk premium of 4%, changing the risk free rate from 6% down to 2% will have profound effects on value. It is this value effect that has led some to blame the Fed for creating a “stock market bubble” and analysts across the world to wonder whether they should be doing something to counter that effect, in their search for intrinsic value.
While the mathematics that show the link between value and interest rates is simple, it is misleading because it does not tell the whole story. As I argued in the last section, interest rate movements, up or down, almost never happen in a  vacuum. The same forces that cause significant shifts in interest rates affect other inputs into the valuation and those changes can reduce or even reverse the interest rate effect:
To illustrate, the 2008 crisis that caused the T.Bond rate to plummet in the last quarter of the year also caused equity risk premiums to surge from 4.37% on September 12, 2008 to 6.43% on December 31, 2008. In the figure below, I back out the expected return on stocks and the equity risk premium from the index level each day and the expected future cash flows for each month from September 2008 to April 2015. Note that the cost of equity for the median US company rose in the last quarter of 2008, even as risk free rates declined.
Source: (Implied ERP)
The expected return on equities has stayed surprisingly stable (around 8%) for much of the last 5 years, nullifying the impact of lower interest rates and casting doubt on the “Fed Bubble” story. As the crisis has receded, investor concerns have shifted to real growth, as the developed market economies (US, Euro Zone and Japan) have been slow to recover and inflation has not only stayed tame but turned to deflation in the EU and Japan. Thus, looking just at lower interest rates and making judgments on value misses the big picture.
Reacting to Low Interest Rates
Given that low interest rates have shaken up the equation, what should we do to respond? Broadly speaking, there are four responses to low interest rates:
  1. Normalize: In valuation, it is common practice to replace unusual numbers (earnings, capital expenditures and working capital) with more normalized values. Some analysts extend that lesson to risk free rates, replacing today’s “too low” rates with more normalized values. While I understand the impulse, I think it is dangerous for three reasons. The first is that “normal” is a subjective judgment. I argue, only half in jest, that you can tell how long an analyst has been in markets by looking at what he or she views as a normal riskfree rate, since normal requires a time frame and the longer that time frame, the higher normal interest rates become. The second is that if you decide to normalize the risk free rate, you have no choice but to normalize all your other macro variables as well. Consequently, you have to replace today’s equity risk premium with the premium that fits best with your normalized risk free rate and do the same with growth rates. Put differently, if you want to act like it is 2007, 1997 or 1987, when estimating the risk free rate, your risk premiums and growth rates will have to be adjusted accordingly. The third is that unlike earnings, cash flows or other company-specific variables, where you are free to make your judgment calls, the risk free rate is what you can earn on your money today, if you don’t invest in risky assets. Consequently, if you do your valuation, using a normalized risk free rate of 4% (instead of the actual risk free rate of 2%), and decide that stocks are over valued, I wish you the very best of luck putting your money in that normalized treasury bond, since it exists only in your estimation.
  2. Go intrinsic: The second option, if you believe that the market interest rate on government bonds is being skewed by central banking action to abnormally low or high levels is to replace that rate with an intrinsic interest rate. If you buy into my estimates for inflation and real growth in the last section, that would translate into using a 3.08% “intrinsic” US treasury bond rate. To preserve consistency, you should continue to use the same inflation rate and real growth as your basis for forecasting earnings and cash flow growth in your company and going the distance, you should estimate an intrinsic ERP, perhaps tying it to fundamentals.
  3. Leave it alone: The third option is to leave the risk free rate at its current levels, notwithstanding concerns that you might have about it being too low or too high. To keep your valuation in balance, though, your other inputs have to be consistent with that risk free rate. That implies using forward-looking prices for risk (equity risk premiums and default spreads) that reflect the market today and economy-wide growth and inflation rates that are consistent with the current risk free rate. Thus, if you decide to use 0.21% as the risk free rate in Euros, the combination of inflation and real growth rates you have to assume in the Euro economy have to combine to be less than 0.21%. Doing so does not imply that you believe that nominal growth will be that low but ensures that you are making the same assumptions about nominal growth in the numerator (cash flows) as you are in the denominator (through the risk free rate).
  4. Leave it alone (for now) : The last option is to leave the risk free rate at current levels for now but adjust the rate in the future (perhaps at the end of your high growth period) to your normalized or intrinsic levels. Here again, the key is to make sure that your other valuation inputs are consistent with your assumption. Thus, for the period you use the current risk free rate, you have to use equity risk premiums, growth rates and inflation expectations consistent with that rate, and as you adjust the risk free rate to its normalized or intrinsic levels, you have to adjust the rest of your inputs.
To illustrate the four options when it comes to risk free rates, I value a hypothetical average-risk company with an expected cash flow of $100 million next year, using all four options. The inputs I use for the company under each option are summarized below, with the value computed in the last column:

The four choices yield different values but the most interesting finding is that the value that I get with the “leave alone” option is lower than the values that I obtain with my other options. Consequently, those who argue that we need to replace the current risk free rate with more normalized versions because it is the “conservative” path may be ending up with estimates of value that are too high (not too low).

While I prefer the “leave alone” option, I think that the other approaches are defensible, if your macro views are significantly different from mine. The danger, as I see it, comes when you mismatch your assumptions, with two of the most egregious examples listed below:

Note that while each input into these mismatched valuations may be defensible, it is the combination that skews the value vastly downwards or upwards. If you use  or do intrinsic valuations, checking for input consistency is more critical than ever before.

Bottom line
So, what is the bottom line? Like almost everyone else, I find myself in uncharted territory, with interest rates approaching zero in many currencies and like most others, I feel the urge to “fix” the problem. There are three broad lessons that I take away from looking at the data.
  1. Central banks tweak interest rates. They don’t set them. Consequently, I am going to spend less time worrying about what Janet Yellen does in the interest rate room and more on the fundamentals that drive rates. I will also grant short shrift to anyone who uses central banks as either an excuse or looks to them as a savior in their investing.
  2. When risk free rates are abnormally low or high, it is because there are other components in the market that are abnormal, and I am not sure what is normal. For investors in the US and Europe who yearn for the normality of decades past, I am afraid that normal is not returning. We have to recalibrate our assumptions about what is normal (for interest rates, risk premiums, inflation and economic growth) and pay less heed to rules of thumb that were developed for another market (US in the 1900s) and another time.
  3. As investors, we can rage against interest rates being too low but it is what it is. We have to value companies in the markets that we are in, not the markets we wished we were in.

Financial Policy and the Role of the State

Does financial liberalization mean that LDC governments have no role to play in the financial sector? In an effort to identify how these governments can work effectively within the context of liberalized financial markets, some economists isolated seven major market failures that imply a potential role for state intervention. Their basic argument is “that (LDC) financial markets are markedly different from other markets”, “that market failures are likely to be more pervasive in these markets” and that “much of the rationale for liberalizing financial markets is based neither on a sound economic understanding of how these markets work nor on the potential scope for government intervention”. The seven market failures economists identified are the following:

(1) The “public good” nature of monitoring financial institutions: Investors need information about the solvency and management of financial institutions. Like other forms of information, monitoring is a public good – everyone who places savings in a particular financial institution would benefit from knowing that the institution was prospering or close to insolvency. But like other public goods in free-market economies, there is an undersupply of monitoring information, and consequently, risk-averse savers withhold their funds. The net result is fewer resources allocated through these institutions.

(2) Externalities of monitoring, selection, and lending: Benefits are often incurred by lenders who learn about the viability of potential projects from the monitoring, selection, and lending decisions of other lenders. Investors can also benefit from information generated by other investors on the quality of different financial institutions. Like other positive (or negative) externalities, the market provides too little information, and resources are under allocated or over allocated.

(3) Externalities of financial disruption: In the absence of government insurance (whether or not an explicit policy has been issued), the failure of one major financial institution can cause a run on the entire banking system and lead to long-term disruptions of the overall financial system.

(4) Missing and incomplete markets: In most developing countries, markets for insurance against a variety of financial (bank failure) or physical (e.g., crop failure) risks are missing. The basic problem is that information is imperfect and costly to obtain, so an LDC government has an important role in reducing these risks. It can, for example, force membership in insurance programs or require financial institutions as well as borrowers to disclose information about their assets, liabilities, and creditworthiness.

(5) Imperfect competition: Competition in the banking sector of most developing countries is extremely limited, meaning that potential borrowers usually face only a small number of suppliers of loanable funds, many of which are unwilling or unable to accommodate new and unknown customers. This is particularly true of small borrowers in the informal urban and rural sectors.

(6) Inefficiency of competitive markets in the financial sector: Theoretically, for perfectly competitive markets to function efficiently, financial markets must be complete (without uninsured risks) and information must be exogenous (freely available to all and not influenced by any one participant’s action in the market). Clearly, there are special advantages to individuals or entities with privileged information in LDC financial markets, and risk insurance is difficult, if not impossible, to obtain. As a result, unfettered financial markets may not allocate capital to its most profitable uses, and there can be substantial deviations between social and private returns to alternative investment projects. In such cases, direct government intervention – for example, by restricting certain kinds of loans and encouraging others – may partly or completely offset these imbalances.

(7) Uninformed investors: Contrary to the doctrine of consumer sovereignty, with its assumption of perfect knowledge, many investors in LDCs lack both the information and the appropriate means to acquire it in order to make rational investment decisions. Here again, governments can impose financial disclosure requirements on firms listed on local stock exchanges or require banks, for example, to inform customers of the differences between simple and compound interest rates or of the nature of penalties for early withdrawals of savings.

LDC governments have a proper role to play in regulating financial institutions, creating new institutions to fill gaps in the kinds of credit provided by private institutions (e.g., micro loans to small farmers and trades people), providing consumer protection, ensuring bank solvency, encouraging fair competition, and ultimately improving the allocation of financial resources and promoting macroeconomic stability. As in other areas of economic development, the critical issue for financial policy is not about free markets versus government intervention but rather about how both can work together (along with the NGO sector) to meet the urgent needs of poor people.


Rashid Javed is an Asian author. He writes articles about various topics of accounting and economics such as elasticity of demand and cash book.

Installment Loans for Bad Credit-Rapid cash assistance despite of bad credits

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As the name says, installment loans no credit check can also be approved by bad creditors without any snub. This loan is meant for bad creditors to offer them fiscal help to remove the financial issues right within least possible time. So, it does not matter if you are tagged with several bad factors like insolvency, foreclosures, bankruptcy, CCJ, arrears, late payments, missed payments etc., you can enjoy this loan aid with no snub.

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When you find your monthly income mismatching with your expenses and desires, apply with installment loans no credit check for comfortable financial support. This is the affordable and swift financial aid that comes with better terms. Now, remove your monetary issues by applying with this loan for hassle free and quick financial support.

How Business Cash Advance Can Save Your Business from Financial Crux

Cash flow is the interior and exterior of your business and is the lifeline for all businesses. Income could be referred to as cycle: your company uses cash to get assets which are then used to create products or services. They are then offered to get some funds and so the cycle is repeated. But what’s most important is that you positively manage and control these cash inflows and outflows.

Sometimes, when individuals are battling for capital to help keep businesses running, they get eccentric assets for financial help. Many banking institutions don’t really extend cash rather offer assistance and counseling that increase the cost of caring the client.

Cash advances and unsecured loans really are a better option to get your business quick money in crunch financial situations. The micro-banking companies offer several kinds of loans and cash advances to businesses for all needed reasons. Financing might be granted as secured or unsecured. In secured loan, collateral is provided to assist guarantee payment in case of default. In unsecured loan, no collateral is provided except just the borrower signature being a legal promise to pay back the loan amount as contracted.

Unsecured business loans and cash advances come in good belief that the borrower will repay the loan amount as contracted. Such cash advances can be for a lot of productive reasons including purchasing equipment and appliances, renovation, paying for bills or financing that dream franchise.

The opportunity to pay back the current and proposed obligations is crucial while approving financing. Cash advance loans are usually declined to those who’ve a present past due advance. Generally cash advance schemes the borrower’s ability to pay back is dependent upon the borrower’s monthly credit card sales receipts.

There are many benefits of business cash advance lending. The cash advance lenders are very flexible while approving this type of business loan. Even if your business has a low credit score, you can still get cash advance financing. Also the process of getting a business cash advance is instant. The loan application process is very simple, you just have to fill an online application form and the money will be transferred to you in just few business days. The cash advance can also be used for any business purpose without any restrictions. This way you can distribute the cash any where you deems fit.

A Handy Primer on the World of Financial Services

Money, they say is everything and there’s quite a bit of truth in that. One may romanticize things, going on and on about looking at life through rose tinted glasses. But the fact remains that everything in this world that we do, costs money.

This is why human beings around the world spend a good part of their lives in pursuit of gainful employment, in-order to earn the money that they would need to sustain themselves. Apart from regular, living expenses, there are instances where one is required to seek the assistance of financial services providers to fund their acquisitions or investments. Included in the ambit of the scope of work, services providers could range from banking and credit firms to investment and insurance firms.

In this day and age, mobility holds the key to liberating numerous opportunities for personal and professional growth. While people in the cities and A-towns have found it easier to gain access to funding, those from towns situated further away from the city centre have had to traditionally face multiple hardships when trying to round up the necessary funds.

Thankfully, the situation has been changing quite steadily and there are many operators reaching out with finance offers to people in villages and B-category towns. These are often availed off to purchase farming equipment and tractors, etc. They can also be used to augment one’s business premises and their ilk.

Insurance is another sector under the ambit of finance providers. Some offer solutions in specific sectors such as motor insurance and healthcare. These days, tailor-made packages are in high demand and insurance players are ramping up their game in a bid to attract new clients, even as they roll out personalized plans to retain existing ones.

Getting a roof over the head is one of life’s most essential dreams. People that have gone on to achieve this can later rest easy, knowing quite well that they have at-least one place on the planet where strangers cannot evict them out. In the rural areas, people often struggle on account of their credit worthiness. While banks have their own criteria, private institutional financiers often step up to fill in the demand-supply gap. What’s more, rural clients can also secure financing for activities such as house repairs and renovations.

At the end of the day, the markets can become quite saturated with players big and small. Since regulation can be difficult, there is always the risk of frauds and scams. Thus, it is extremely crucial that one choose an operator that has the necessary checks and balances in place. Reputation and market standing therefore, are strong indicators for choosing a provider and not, the lowest possible quote.

Business Finance and Choosing the Right One


One of the principle reasons in respect to why new business wanders come up short is because of an absence of budgetary subsidizing to get the business wander off the ground. Numerous individuals don’t understand the amount of opening and maintaining a business really costs. On the off chance that you don’t research and search out business money you will be not able to pay for your business premises, the greater part of your fundamental gear, your bills and your staff compensation and any of the stock that you will require.
You additionally need to guarantee that when you choose your business fund that you pick the particular case that is best for your business. Finance comes in various structures and can be part into two fundamental areas; equity finance and debt fund. The meaning of equity fund is cash that is put into your business that doesn’t have to be reimbursed. This cash is yours to use as an exchange for an offer of your business benefit. And additionally getting cash put into your business with value account you will likewise pick up skill and business contacts that are yours to utilize. The second principle kind of business fund is debt finance. This is cash that is credited to you. It is cash that obliges the need to be reimbursed over a concurred measure of time. You will need to reimburse the credit in full with included investment yet no rate of your shares is given over.

A few illustrations of equity finance incorporate business heavenly attendants; these are ambitious people who put a certain measure of cash into your business. In exchange for the cash that is contributed a business heavenly attendant will increase some of your imparts so they get a rate of your benefit. Business blessed messengers are ideal for new companies as they give cash that doesn’t oblige the need to be reimbursed and in addition master counsel about the most ideal method for maintaining your business. An alternate illustration of equity finance comes as an investor. An investor is for all intents and purpose the same as a business holy messenger separated from they can give higher measures of fund and have a tendency to put all the more in settled organizations where the danger of disappointment is lessened.
Some sample of debt finance incorporates; bank credits. At the point when a great many people consider new company back the primary spot that strikes a chord is their bank despite the fact that banks are exceptionally watchful about giving cash to new organizations as there is dread that the month to month reimbursements won’t be stayed up with the latest. An alternate case is Credit Cards; these are costly regarding start-up fund however they are likewise a speedy method for raising account. One more sample of debt finance is overdrafts; these can be lavish yet are an adaptable type of getting, they are not suitable for long haul finance and are repayable on interest.
In spite of the fact that with debt finance you have a considerable measure more alternatives open to you with methods for lending cash, the choice of equity finance is still more positive with new organizations as a private financial specialist will do everything that they can to guarantee that your business is a win.

Indiabulls Home Loan

With property prices notching up astronomical figures by the day, prospective home buyers are finding it difficult to arrange sufficient funds for purchasing a new home. Not all are blessed with sufficient resources to back their home ownership plans. With real estate prices spiraling up by the day and interest rates of the bank being not so forgiving, prospective home buyers are often left in lurch as to how to make both ends meet with limited resources. Adding insult to their injury is the rising inflation levels, often leaving the masses with lesser disposable income in their hands. However, home loans offered by different financial institutions and banks can be availed by the home buyers in order to accelerate the process of converting their dream into reality of buying a new home.

When it comes to Loan about a home, Indiabulls home finance pvt ltd emerges as the leading vendor which provides home finance on easy terms and condition. Financial assistance from Indiabulls is marked by simplified documentation, instant disbursal and speedy approval. Since its inception, the financial institution has been helping people realize their dream of owning a property with the help of easily repayable home finance assistance packages. Standing true to its tagline Quality. On Time., the financial institution has been consistently delivering its services in the space of indiabulls home loan online trading, equities, currency derivatives, commodities trading and other related areas. With a pan-India presence and a wide client base, Indiabulls boasts of state-of the-art infrastructure, manned by in-house experts assisting customer queries round-the-clock. Indiabulls product and services umbrella ranges from financial services, securities to real estate and power.

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Indiabulls is known for the competitive yet customer friendly bank rates it offers to its client. The bank rates of Indiabulls is based on floating rates and are amortized on monthly reducing balance. Indiabulls bank rates for any kind of loans regarding home are linked to +/- of Prime Lending Rate (PLR) / Floating Reference Rate (FRR) of the company. At present, the rate of interest varies from 10.75% – 16%.Indiabulls home loan offered on a pan-India basis, thus touching each region, providing home finance assistance and bringing smile on a million faces.

How to Get The Best and Safe Personal Loan

A personal loan is the loan borrowed to meet personal requirements. This type of loan can be obtained from a bank or other organization lending loans and making a clear agreement for repayments specifying the monthly installments and due dates for payments. If you go for a personal loan, you should ensure that you make the payment of installment between the specified dates or it may amount to losing your property, if you are a defaulter.

The repayment amount will include the part of principal amount borrowed and the interest accrued according to the terms of agreement. You will have to repay the stipulated amount each month to the bank, house building society or the institution from where you have borrowed the money. The amount of loan approved will either be decided by you according to your capacity to return the loan easily or by the lender as he may assess.

The personal loan can be utilized for different personal uses such as for your business, to purchase a vehicle, for making a holiday trip, to renovate a house or to meet unforeseen expenses, etc.There are two types of personal loans. One is a secured loan and other is unsecured loan. A secured loan is available against mortgaging any property to the loaner as a security against any default in returning the loan. The loaner has the right to sell the property to recover his money.

There are so many players emerging in the personal loans market, as a result there are serious financial issues in the market related the types of loans provided by them.

It does not mean that people should desist from getting a personal loan. You need to be confident about the financial institution before getting a loan that the loan is safe and the lending institution is renowned. There are a few doubtful institutions in the market who may try to grab your property, if you are not careful.

It is not a problem to secure a cash loan for those have good credit rating or possess property or own a business. They can get personnel loans easily from recognized financial institutions which have a clean record and good customer relations on the basis of good credit score or by providing a collateral.

You may be in a dire need of getting a loan to meet some of your urgent needs. Before applying for a loan, you should be aware of what types of loans are available for a particular purpose. If you are not able to take a decision, it is better to consult a financial ad visor. You should get offers from different lenders for personal loans. It is a good alternative for those to get loans online, if you do not have a bank or financial institution nearby to cater to your needs.

It is true that the market is competitive for the lenders. You can approach the institutions in any exigency for a personal loan. The procedure to get a loan is simple. Most of the personal loans are normally unsecured. The amount of borrowings is also low usually limiting to 15,000 dollars for an individual.

If you need a loan for short period, it is helpful if you have clear credit history. It is a best option to get a cash loan. Cash loans are of three types. These include: cash advance loan, deferred deposited loan and a check loan. The interest payable is mainly linked to the type of cash loan you opt for.

You can enjoy a personel loan to meet your emergent requirements provided you select a suitable personal loan from a reliable institution.

If you are looking for resources from where you can get a personel loan, then get the details on Personal loans United States by following the link. You will get some good loan offers here!

How Financial Management Rate of Return (FMRR) Influences Real Estate Investing Decisions

Amongst the many real estate investing returns used by investors to measure profitability of investment property, the financial management rate of return (or FMMR) undoubtedly is one of the most unique yet lesser known returns. Financial management rate of return was conceived by the Commercial Investment Real Estate Institute (at least I think it was) because it is presented on a regular basis by CIREA to those who are seeking the Certified Commercial Investment Member (or CCIM) designation and I have never come across the concept employed anywhere else.

Alright, so what exactly is the financial management rate of return, what makes it unique, and how do you calculate it?

Let’s start with the concept behind the return. That real estate investors are commonly confronted with having to pick amongst alternate investment opportunities that Internal Rate of Return (IRR) isn’t going to adequately offer. As a consequence then it seemed unavoidable to introduce FMRR for investors who want to make comparisons between those investments on an “apples-to-apples” basis.

In order to do this, two components known as the “safe rate” and the “reinvestment rate” have been integrated into the FMMR model by the CIREI.

1) Safe Rate In view here is the rate an investor would “safely” collect on money put into an account where it should be understood to be highly liquid and can be removed on a day-to-day basis without loss of either principal or interest.

The concept is a reasonable one. If an investor is collecting a positive sum of dollars per month from a certain rental property after loans and income taxes are assessed then it can be assumed that those monies would not be tucked under a mattress. Rather that the investor would instead deposit those funds in the bank and collect what the institute refers to as this “safe rate”.

2) Reinvestment Rate This is concerned with monies that would not be necessary to meet other money needs of the real estate asset and could be “reinvested” in some other sorts of “run of the mill” financial investments therein earning the investor additional after-tax yields known as the “reinvestment rate”.

The computation to get FMMR is particularly complex. So you will need a real estate calculator or quality real estate investing software solution to undertake it.

So let me just explain what it does in practice with projected annual revenues.

First, all the negative cash flows that exist are discounted back year-by-year to the investment year (i.e., year zero) at the safe rate unless they are confronted with a positive cash flow and are removed. Then the positive cash flows (if any are present and still exist) are compounded forward at the reinvestment rate to the year of sale (when you expect to sell the property). Negative cash flows that do in fact survive the trip are included with the initial investment in year zero, similarly the positive cash flows are included with the cash proceeds in the year of sale, and each and every year in between become zeros.

In other words, despite the number of annual revenue projections you are making, the schema will always wind up with a sum total of negative dollars in year zero, a sum total of positive dollars in the final year, and zero amounts for the years in between.

Okay, now the schema is amply constructed we solve for the financial management rate of return (FMRR) merely by using that schema and computing the internal rate of return (IRR).


James Kobzeff is the developer of ProAPOD – leading real estate investment analysis software solutions since 2000. Create rental property cash flow and rates of return analysis and marketing presentations in minutes! Includes Financial Management Rate of Return. Learn more =>

Instant loans today Designed for all your urgent financial crisis

Sudden ends might pop up amidst the month for which you might not be financially prepared. The shortage of money might compel you to find some instant financial aid to meet the ends. The feasiblae way to bridge the financial shortage during the financial emergency is by considering the Instant loans today. The loan makes it possible for you to access instant cash the same day and meet your financial crisis.

Instant loans today are short term loan scheme that offers financial assistance to people during their monetary crisis. They are offered without following any credit checks. However, while applying for the benefits of this loan an applicant have to fulfill the eligibility criteria mentioned as below:

An applicant must have attained the age of 18 years or should be above. An applicant should be a permanent employee in any organization or firm An applicant should be a denizen of UK An applicant should posses an active and valid bank account The instant loans today is offered to both good and bad credit holders. Like any other loan amount this loan offers a cash that ranges from 100 upto 1500. The payback term of this loan is short and starts from 14-31 days from the date of approval. The repayment term of this loan is flexible and borrowers can extend the pay back date as per their repaying capability.

The instant loans today can be applied and approved online. The online application procedure is designed in a simple way. The interest rate of this loan is slightly higher. But in the highly competitive market you can easily spot lenders that are ready to negotiate the rate of interest. The best way to find a reasonable rate of interest is by comparing the loan qoutes of various lenders. The instant loans help a person to meet the urgent and inevitable ends such as: medical bills, electricity bills, grocery bills, tuition fees etc.

Andra Nail is a great writer on the loan articles. He has proved his good command over the knowledge of loans with his constant work on the loan articles. For further information about cheap payday loans, no worries loans , same day payday loans visit

Explain the monetary policy of RBI

The Reserve Bank Of India Is the Central Bank of country.

~It supervises and control the banking and monetary structure of the country.

~Thus RBI plays an instrumental role on the financial markets of the country. The influence on the financial market can be exercised through the Monetary Policy of the RBI.


~Monetary policy is a regulatory policy that is concerned with the money supply and credit in the economy.

~ It controls the supply of money, availability of bank credit and the cost of money( rate of interest)

~Monetary Policy is framed keeping in mind certain pre-determined objectives.

~ It is generally helpful in bringing about a balanced economic growth of a nation.

~ The RBI announces its monetary policy twice a year ,in April and in October.


~ The following are the main objectives of RBIs monetary policy:-


^ The monetary policy aims at economic growth through price stability and provision of adequate credit to productive sectors of the economy to support aggregate demand so as to ensure high GDP growth.

^ This growth with stability through controlled expansion of credit.

^CRR, SLR and Repo Rate have their effects on the banking transaction of various sectors of the economy that brings about economic growth of the nation.


^ Financial stability is the ability of an economy to absorb and overcome shocks in the financial system.

^ These shocks (Internal/External)can destabilize the financial system and cause volatile and unpredictable change in the economy.

^ Therefore the monetary policy of the RBI has laid a great emphasis to maintain confidence in the financial system through proper regulations, supervision and adequate development of the financial system.


^ Financial inclusion is the process by which financial services and timely and adequate credit at affordable costs are provided to the weaker section and the low income groups.

^ Therefore the RBI along with NABARD is focussing on micro financing to reduce income inequality in the economy.


^ Through inflation control is obstructive to economic growth, over inflation has an adverse effect on the economy. So the RBI has to balance economic growth with inflation.

^ Inflation can be controlled by increasing the CRR that results in high interest rates and greater saving.

^ This reduces demand for goods and services that helps in controlling inflation.


^ Monetary policy promotes economic growth that increases the provision of credit to various sectors of the economy. This leads to expansion of business activities that naturally leads to employment generation.

^ Micro financing promotes the generation of self employment that further enhances the economic growth of a nation.


^ IN recent years import and exports of our country have grown significantly and so has the two way movement of financial flows.

^ This may lead to exchange rate instability and inflation.

^ The RBI can control such situation by adopting selective credit control measures and buying and selling foreign currencies in the open market.


^ Through effective monetary management, the RBI influences and encourages people to increase savings

^ Differential interest rates offering attractive interests promotes savings and investments in the economy.


^ The monetary policy has induced healthy competition in the banking sector in India.

^ Transparency in banking transactions and professionalism also results in improved efficiency of banking sector in India.


^ The RBI fixes the ceiling limit of credit that controls lending/advances by banks in certain controlled commodities or securities.

^ This reduces the speculative activities in the stock markets and commodity markets.


^ Non banking financial institution like UTI, LIC, IFCI etc plays a crucial role in the deployment of credit and mobilization of savings.

^Though the RBI has no direct control over these institutions, its monetary policy influences the general interest rates in the entire economy.

^ This indirectly affects the operational policies of the NBFIs.

An Honest And Critical Primerica Review (Don’t Join Before Reading!)

An Honest And Critical Primerica Review (Don’t Join Before Reading!)

An Inside Look At Primerica’s Business Opportunity
Primerica (formerly known as Primerica Financial Services/A.L.Williams) is a very popular business opportunity that combines financial services with a multilevel marketing model. For more than three decades, Primerica has been able to produce many, many 6-figure a year earners. In the 1st quarter of 2010, they officially parted ways with long-time parent company, Citigroup, and went public. Currently, the company’s sales force is comprised of 100,000 life insurance licensed reps. It has maintained a good rating with the BBB, and it is a legitimate opportunity (despite what you may have heard).

With that said, there are some pros and cons you should be aware of if you’re going to join Primerica. In this review, I will give you a critical review of Primerica, highlight the pros and cons and answer the question of whether or not Primerica offers a great opportunity.

First, let’s start with the Pros:
1. Primerica provides a unique opportunity for someone who has NO experience in financial services to come on-board and get licensed and trained on the basics of life insurance, mutual funds, variable annuities and mortgages.

2. Unlike most financial companies, Primerica offers people the chance to join on a part time basis. This is a huge benefit because it eliminates the stress of trying to live off of 100% commissions-income from day-one.

3. With the Primerica compensation plan, a rep can make a decent living simply selling Primerica’s financial products.

4. Primerica provides a good amount of support from local offices, from corporate headquarters and from website backoffices. They are also embracing technology by offering electronic applications (via mobile devices and smart phones) and paperless files eliminating a tremendous amount of paper files.

5. As stated earlier, Primerica has one of the best track records the network marketing industry. Currently, there are 60+ leaders in the company that make in excess of $1 million a year in income.

Now, let’s give you the Cons:

1. The training is pretty basic , which is unfortunate for “unknowing” clients obtained by newbie reps. Personally speaking, I wouldn’t want my kid’s education funds, my retirement accounts and, especially, my life insurance accounts handled by someone that’s been licensed for 30 days and has no experience in truly offering financial advice.

2. Primerica pays out significantly less commissions to it’s reps, when compared to what they could make if they were independent.

3. You are a CAPTIVE agent at Primerica. This means you are able to sell Primerica products ONLY. Without the ability to shop around for the best possible products for your clients, you may be selling them products that aren’t suited for them. “Shopping” around is forbidden at Primerica, but is a standard practice for independent reps.

4. You lose approximately 80% of your team’s recruits because of licensing. According to Primerica’s numbers, around twenty percent on new reps get their insurance license. What about the 80% who fail to pass the state exams? They inevitably give up on the business.Imagine building a group that is recruiting 100 new people on a monthly basis. Think about this, out of those 100, 80 were people you couldn’t build with because they coudn’t pass their state tests for whatver reason.

5. A significant detail of the Primerica comp plan that isn’t usually disclosed to new people is the fact that you have to PASS UP your best one or two legs to your upline when you promote to RVP. This is known as “replacement legs”. Imagine, working your behind off to earn your Regional VP promotion, only to give up your best leades and starting all over again… Only this time, as a Regional VP, you have office expenses hanging over you. By the way, when you hit RVP, Primerica does NOT allow you to make money doing anything else but Primerica. This is extremely important to know if you are seriously considering the Primerica Business Opportunity.In other words, if you’re interested in building multiple streams of income, that won’t be possible once you hit RVP.

In closing, Primerica is a real legitimate business opportunity where once can go to learn the basics of financial services while building a network marketing team. Just be sure to do your due diligence on the compensation model so you know exactly what’s in store for you.

Should You Join Primerica?
If you’re looking for a business that doesn’t require HOURS of financial product training, the probability that you’ll lose a ton of people during the licensing exams and the fact that you have to give your upline your best leaders, then Primerica is definately not for you.

However, if you like the idea of recruiting agents (and you’re OK with a super-high attrition ratio) and building your agency with the opportunity to qualify to open up your own Primerica office, then Primerica may be an opportunity you should explore.

Jaime Soriano is a Business Developer, MLM Coach Attraction Marketer. He wrote this Primerica Review as a resource for people looking into the Primerica Business Opportunity. If you want to generate 50+ leads a day for your MLM business and profit from prospects that say “NO” to your MLM Opportunity, visiting Jaime Soriano’s MLM Training

Factors To Consider In Projected Profit And Loss Statement Drawing A Business Plan Financial Info

The projected profit and loss statement, drawing a business plan, financial information analysis, revenue projection exercises are tools that make sound decision making easier to achieve. A statement with projections of profit and loss is a financial planning component for an enterprise. The putting together of a business plan shows an overview. The analysis of financial information employs the use of historical information to examine the present and prospective conditions of the subject. Whereas, revenue projections constitute an exercise that has different uses for different parties.

Factors influencing a business plan

The intended audience of a business plan may be internal or external. Externally focused plans have targeted goals important to external stakeholders, most likely potential investors in the business or lenders. They provide detailed information about the business, its products, its market, clients and potential clients, personnel and financial data and anything that would be relevant to the reaching of these goals. Plans for internal consumption target medium term goals that may be steps towards the attainment of goals later to be shared with an external audience. They could be about a product, a service, a system, financial or organizational changes, a production facility or some other subject. The plan may be accompanied by a list of identifiable factors by which the success of this plan can be measured. An internal operational plan sets out planning details that are needed by management; but, these may not be of interest to external stakeholders. It is more open and informal than the type prepared for external review.

Such a plan is used by startups as a funding tool. It highlights the strengths of the ideas, strategy, and the business team. The different parts of this plan are organized for maximum effect.

For a startup this plan has to be limited in content; but, powerful in its message. Ambitious capital seekers may even use more than one form. These can range from a summary of the executive summary, to an oral format or a more detailed written version.

Revenue Projections of the business

For companies no longer in the startup stage revenue projections help to forecast income cycles and consequent adjustments. Projections will analyze the three areas of the current business of the company, the sales in its pipeline and potential new business. For each of these categories an estimate of the amount of revenue that is received every month is factored in. The first category is the easiest to project as it is already being realized.

Updating the projections on a monthly basis will helping abreast of trends. Timely absorption of information facilitates corrective action. In the case of startups, experienced investors and lenders are aware the initial version will alter. Projections in this context demonstrate the preparedness of management.

The purposes of projection in profit and loss statements

These statements can be part of a business plan that reveals data pertaining to revenues, cost incurred in producing products and services of the business, operating expenses, and net income or loss. Basic assumptions for income and expenses are made in this context and they should be detailed in the business plan with supporting documentation taken from market study and the marketing plan. The projected financial statements should indicate economic changes in the expected business cycle. These projections should reflect any expected fluctuations in sales and expenses. The profit and loss statement will demonstrate income minus expenses and should be done on a monthly basis. The second and third year may be done on a quarterly basis. For startups in the initial period the projected net profits is usually in the red, because of high startup costs. This is not unexpected.

Analysis of Financial information

Known also as financial statement analysis this is very useful for different reasons. It is most useful in the making of investing and lending decisions. The objective of financial statements is to provide a historical record of events useful for assessing the cash flows of a business enterprise. Competently assembled valid data leads to sound decisions. The purpose could be a screening tool in selecting investment or merger candidates. It may be a forecasting tool of future financial conditions and results. It can also diagnose managerial, operating, or other problem areas. The tools used by the analyst are chosen based on which one is best suited for the purpose of the analysis. Comparative financial statements with year to year changes; index number trend series; common size financial statements with structural analysis, ratio analysis, specialized analysis of cash forecasts, analysis of changes in cash flows, statement of variation in gross margin, and break even analysis are the analytical tools that can be used in this exercise. Whatever methods are used by the analyst, one or more feature of the financial condition of a business will be examined. These features can generally be found in the areas of short term liquidity, flow of funds, capital structure and long term solvency, return on investments, operating performance and asset utilization. These are the building blocks of financial statement analysis.

Evan writes articles about the projected profit and loss statement and teaches people what to know about revenue projection.



Melvin and I met when we were both 6 years old. We cemented a friendship that has lasted to this day. While I toiled hard to secure a position in the shoe polish industry, Melvin’s career was the proverbial meteoric dash. By the age of 30 he had become CEO of an Investment Bank, part of a family conglomerate that also includes hotel chains, a soccer team, an airline and a famous Las Vegas R&R joint. Following the American tradition, he started at the top throughout his entire career. The generous donations by his parents to elementary, high and private schools, later transferred to some of the Ivy League campuses, placed him always at the top of his class, confirming once more that the elusive American Dream is not that elusive. We sat at the Bull & Bear at the Waldorf and properly stimulated by one of Walter’s dry martinis, I had to ask him about the financial meltdown. He looked at me and smiled, knowing that his explanation would go by me the same way the 8 am Amtrak flies by Evan’s Crossing: -You have to take into account that Government intervention is conditioned to unique parameters that compromise not only values and extrapolated projections in the financial markets but it also points to the existence of extreme risks in the global financial system that extends easily into federal regulators, that is if regulations have been in place or if some non-accrued latitude has been bound with poor quality collateral like junk bonds of doubtful loan packages which means that the Fed will have to come up with some middle term emergency loan plans either by default of cash flows or uninhibited referral to use of depreciation and amortization reserves that do not impinge on healthy balance sheets, unless the guarantees are there but not before some of the trillion dollar obligations have been properly indentured and are at least incorporated into a relief formula that can keep the Treasury Department’s position regarding accrual formulas of recovery and perhaps transfers and assignations within modules of long term financing that can be acceptable to debtors and entities backed by currency variations and assessments . Is that clear?- All I could say was: -Crystal, Melvin. Now, what is this about Fannie and Mac? How come this couple gets all the attention when there are millions of couples waiting expectantly for some solution to their immediate mortgage problems? Are they related to some of the Pashas in Wall Street?’ He smiled and answered; -You got it wrong, they are two insurance companies called Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. -I see. Now, is there a solution to this financial crisis?- -Yes. After the Government gets through helping the financial sector, it will have to regulate real estate, energy, utilities, land leases, school curriculums, transportation, sports, Movies and Television, CEO salaries, the pill making industry, the farm universe, the publishing industry, all kindergartens, import and exports of all types, ID cards, travel permits, Gay and Lesbie associations, Internet postings and diaper manufacture!- -Gee, all this sound familiar, You are not talking Socialism, are you?

Disability loans- Financial help for the needed people who are disabled


Disabilities are unexpected and unpredictable. It can come to anybody without prior indications and notifications. People with different types of disabilities such as cerebral palsy, physical disabilities, deafness and also people with reading disabilities and learning disability are eligible to apply for such grants and aids. These loans are majorly offered to those people who live on the benefit provided by the department of social security. The people who are going through from disabilities cannot be able to work efficiently and as a result they cannot earn enough income to balance their expenses with their income. Disability loanshelp the person to have extra source of cash with ease. These loans provide funds to overcome from your financial crisis.


Disabled have lower income because of imperfection at work and they can avail easy finance from loans for disabled with several benefits. The loan application can be done with online procedure with ease and simplicity. You can avail funds by just filling a simple online form requiring requisite information and some banking details for online transactions removing the stress and discomfort of letting you visit to the lender”s place. The monetary problems can easily be removed by hiring easy disability loans. These loans also help the handicapped students to pursue his/her education and other handicapped persons for rehabilitation purpose. The loan scheme doesn”t demand collateral to pledge against the loan amount and even don”t require you to show your credit reports. After the endorsement of loans, the loan money will directly get submitted into your account within 24 hours. These loans are beneficial and serve well to the disabled persons.


You need to follow up certain requirement specifications which are needed to get the loans for people on disability benefits with easy required cash. Such as:

1.The applicant who needs to apply for these loans should be permanent citizen of UK.
2.He should be an adult with the age of eighteen years of age.
3.He should possess a valid and active check account for online transactions.
4.He should have permanent residential address.
5.He should be employed earning viable source of income to be able to repay back the loan amount.

Video Source: Youtube

Sweepstakes Scams Are a Form of Financial Elder Abuse

Sweepstakes scams continue to rack up victims, despite warnings to the public. Often, senior citizens are the target of these types of scams. Thus, sweepstakes scams are a form of financial elder abuse. In a typical sweepstakes scam, a fraudster contacts an elderly victim and informs them that they have won lottery. The catch is that the elderly victim is then told that they must send in money in order to collect the sweepstakes prize. California financial elder abuse attorneys warn senior citizens not to fall victim to sweepstakes scams.

Recently, the Federal Trade Commission announced that it is putting an end to one large sweepstakes scam based in Ventura County. The defendant in the case owned three companies that allegedly mailed out more than 3.7 million letters to people in more than 156 countries. In this case, instead of asking for large sums of money from senior citizen victims, they asked for smaller sums of money. California financial elder abuse attorneys warn the public not to fall for sweepstakes scams no matter how much money the fraudsters ask for.

In this case, the senior citizen victims received personalized letters with official looking seals, stamps and bar codes. The seniors were told that they had won millions of dollars and could get the money by first sending in a small fee of $20-$30 within a limited period of time. According to the Federal Trade Commission, the scam has brought in more than $11 million dollars, mostly from senior citizens. California financial elder abuse attorneys say that senior citizens are often targeted for these kinds of mailings.

One of the letters that was mailed out as a part of this scam states that the victim has been chosen from a pool of 250,637 names. There is fine print on the back of the letter that states that consumers will actually only receive lists of sweepstakes they can enter instead of a cash prize. According to the Federal Trade Commission, the fine print does not clear the company of wrong doing because the claims are misleading and victims do not get what they are promised. Frequently, people do not see the fine print and send in the $20-$30 fee.

Sweepstakes scams such as this are widespread and one of the top five scams targeting consumers, according to the Federal Trade Commission. The fact that sweepstakes scams successfully target senior citizens makes them another form of financial elder abuse.

Evans Law Firm, Inc. handles elder abuse cases in California. If you think that you have witnessed or are the victim of elder abuse then, contact Evans Law Firm, Inc. at 41

Make your CPA Website Design More Interactive with Complimentary Accounting Calcs

Financial calcs are effective online resources that aid folks to analyze standard accounting questions. They are some of the most beneficial elements that you can present to customers on a CPA firm site. You can interest people in your website by making it to be full of interactive resources. Interactive features are a handy means to construct a fresh and effective website design for a CPA.

Many the more advanced accounting tools that can be added into a site can be high-priced, which will involve setting up a unique budget set aside for website improvement. However, the good news is that a great CPA website can be developed for little expense.

Financial calculators are an ideal way to make a website more compelling to users. People are attracted to websites that they find helpful. The addition of financial calculators to your website will make it a great resource for people. Additionally, it will keep people on the page for a longer period of time. Also, the longer someone is on your page, the more exposure they will gain about your business. Over time visitors will come to recognize and trust your website and maybe even use your services. These tools will often draw people back to your website for repeated visits.

Of the specialized accounting tools available on the market, interactive financial calculators are the most useful to website visitors. There are a lot of these tools available that are designed specifically for websites. You can find them online. A basic web search will provide you with many options. After you have searched online you will need to be able to pick out the best ones. Look for calculators that are both affordable and useful.

Adding a financial calculator to your website will make it interactive. In addition to making your website more useful, it will be beneficial in a lot of other ways.

The beauty of a financial calculator is that it allows clients to solve simple problems on their own. This is a win-win for both you and your clients. Instead of taking up too much time to answer simple questions in person, you will be incorporating a helpful solution into your CPA website design.

Also, a financial calculator can be a wonderful way to market your website. Everyone loves a website with helpful resources. Visitors who make use of your calculator will share your website with friends and colleagues who need some accounting help. Thus, your company will gain in popularity and have the opportunity to lure new people into becoming clients.

So it is clear that adding a financial calculator to your accounting website has a lot of benefits. Therefore you will want to focus on finding a quality financial calculator and effectively including it on your site.

One easy way to find financial calculators for your CPA website design is to search online by entering search terms such as ‘free financial calculator’ or ‘inexpensive financial calculator.’ The drawback is that you will need to thoroughly test each potential calculator to make sure that is functions optimally. My favorite source for this content is because they have a great selection and keep everything updated.

Once you have found the ideal financial calculator for your website you need to effectively add it to your website. You can either add it to your website yourself or consult with your web developer. In most cases, it is an easy process. Even people who have no programming skills are typically able to add a financial calculator to their website.

The easiest way to add the calculator is with a simple text link opening to a new window, but if you really want to dazzle your users and you don’t want to use too many calculators on each page you can use inline framed links. Even though the process is simple, it is understandable that you may not feel comfortable with it. In this case you can ask your web developer for assistance. A website developer will be able to provide you with helpful tips on the placement of the financial calculator. This will allow you to seamlessly integrate it into your overall website design.

Before going live, you should run several tests to make sure that the financial calculator is working accurately and giving your clients the solution they are looking for. The effectiveness of your CPA website design is all-important. The more functional your site and its design is, the happier your visitors will be. This is just what you have to do to establish a large client base.

Kenny Marshall is an online marketing professional and one-time VP of His specialty is marketing small firms by taking advantage of serious CPA website designs. While using social media and Search Engine Optimization forms the basis of his methodology he also stresses the importance of traditional network marketing and excellent customer service in helping CPA firms grow their customer bases.

Financial Control and Single Entry System

A greater control over the debts owed to the company and by the company is of great importance if one wants to have a smooth operation going on in the business. Bad debts can definitely cripple a small scale business owner. Lack of grip over unpaid invoices can result in serious disruptions and disturbances in a business. Suppliers might stop their supplies and may even attempt to charge recovery costs. Sometimes, they may do a relentless chase for the debts, thus taking up valuable time of both the parties. So, while single entry bookkeeping is deemed a viable option, anyone who adopts a self employed approach of bookkeeping procedures should also maintain a supplementary system to have a good control over the assets and liabilities. Bookkeeping soft wares also can deliver appropriate solutions by facilitating additional financial control over money matters.

Essentially, most of the small businesses make lists of income received and lists of expenses incurred. Making use of single entry bookkeeping necessitates virtually zero accounting and bookkeeping knowledge. While recording the financial transactions in these two lists i.e., income and expenditure, a slight variation in details can have significant effects on the accuracy and quality of records produced. When entering the details in the sales invoices or income received notes in order to get the total sales turnover, a little bit of analysis can save your time and can aid in producing a sophisticated result. For instance, the sales figures can be listed in one column and analyzed. The additional columns could be for different product lines or sales pertaining to different sales channels and sources. Or perhaps, it could be used to segregate interest received from business sales income. Single entry bookkeeping takes care of making a list of all the purchase invoices of various goods and services produced and delivered.

After having produced the exhaustive list of sales and expenses, one goes on to produce the income and expenditure account. Make entries of the totals in the single entry bookkeeping documents on a separate sheet. The sales income should be at the top of the list of expenses featured under each purchase expenditure class. Take out the total expenditure from the total sales income and the result happens to be the net taxable profit. Bookkeeping software attempts to automate this whole process. In the preparation of financial accounts by the owner itself, there is bound to be some advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage happens to be the aspect of ease and simplicity with which various accounts can be generated.

And, one of the main disadvantages of single entry bookkeeping system is the lack of apt financial control arising due to limited number of detailed records pertaining to asset and liability accounts. As these types of smaller businesses do not require a trial balance and balance sheet, making use of a self employed bookkeeping system that records the cash and bank transactions is not unavoidable. But, it is highly recommended if one wants to exercise some additional financial control.

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It is Imperative that Employers know and Use the Financial Resources we have to Begin International

It is essential that SMEs know they have the support and resources when embarking on Home exports has highlighted the growing importance of export is achieved in the economy of Castilla-La Mancha as an essential factor in the output of the crisis

Spain, June 18, 2013 – The Minister of Employment and the Economy of Castilla-La Mancha, Home Carmen said that the Government of Castilla-La Mancha working to ensure that the companies in our region have access to new financial resources that successfully tackle internationalization.

Following the signing of a cooperation agreement with the Spanish Company Development Finance (COFIDES), through its president, Salvador Marin, Home stated that the Government of Castilla-La Mancha is very clear that one of the priorities economic recovery and the productive fabric of the region, passes through the internationalization of their businesses. So, has emphasized that spare no effort or resources to achieve this end. We know that the more companies to export Castilla-La Mancha will be better for our economy and creating jobs.

In this regard, he explained that this agreement will be a useful tool for our business, especially in a time when we are aware that many are experiencing financial problems. In this way, clarified that this agreement will serve to support our business with all the possibilities available to us and will be essential to generate greater economic activity and accelerate economic recovery.

The minister also said that this agreement is particularly aimed at supporting small and medium enterprises in the region, which are the basis of the business of Castilla-La Mancha. Therefore, he pointed out that it is very important that SMEs know they have the support and resources when embarking on export. They know that we have by his side in all their needs at the time of export

Home has highlighted the growing importance of export is achieved in the economy of Castilla-La Mancha. He indicated that in 2012, exports of enterprises in Castilla-La Mancha increased by 8.6% year on year to reach 4.356 million euros, and have increased by 16% the number of exporting companies to reach figure of 4439.

The Minister also highlighted the opportunity offered by this collaboration agreement with COFIDES to businesses in our region, the company to be the leader in the internationalization support, and be a guarantee of success in the viability of export operations, because it has different types of services and support lines adapted to the needs of business.

The event was attended also CEO Economic Strategy and European Affairs, Teresa Jimenez, director of IPEX, Angel Prieto, the CEO of ICEX, Pedro Morejon, and representatives of Banco Santander and Banco Sabadell, as a shareholder of public-private company, which has 1,400 million euro budget to provide resources to SMEs in their expansion.

Finally, it is noted that COFIDES is a public-private partnership that provides financial support to both investments by Spanish companies abroad, as management FIEX (Fund for Foreign Investment) and FONPYME (Fund Foreign Operations of Small and Medium Enterprises).

Press Contact: Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Media Relations Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Address: Avda Ireland No 14 512-212-1139